TPL Final Presentation

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  • Despite the data driven evidence of decline in reading achievement for some children around the age of 9-10 (grades 3 / 4), there are few specialised interventions in place to address this systemic failure. Beyond Reading Recovery, students who struggle with the increased complexities of reading in latter primary years face a lonely battle to succeed. During our school visits, what we did see, were valiant attempts by committed teachers to personalise learning through focussed and targeted differentiation within their classrooms. Future data will provide further evidence as to whether this mainstream approach is able to effectively meet the needs of ‘at risk’ students.
  • Our project is based on the philosophy that all children can learn given the ‘right’ conditions. We sought to address the needs of ‘hardest to teach’ students by linking effective teaching pedagogy with an understanding of the precise difficulties experienced by these children during their struggle to be competent readers. ‘Without effective, specialised help, they are doomed to school failure, illiteracy and severely limited life chances.’ ( Clay, M.M., and Tuck, B. 1991) We sought to address the needs of ‘hardest to teach’ students by linking effective teaching pedagogy with an understanding of the precise difficulties experienced by these children during their struggle to be competent readers. As educators, we believe that the challenge of bringing about successful outcomes for these children is achievable and critical. A deeper recognition by the educational system of the problem and how to address it requires an investment of knowledge and resources we can’t afford to deny.
  • There were three major strengths that contributed to this project. One was the commitment and collaboration of the team; Susanne Redman, Genevieve Sheppard, Leslee Rees, Cathy Snowdon The second was the generosity of the schools and colleagues we visited. The third was being able to access TPL (Teacher Professional Leave) which made our combined efforts possible. Thank you to all those listed below for willingly contributing to our research
  • Inconsistency in teaching practices e.g. diluted or differing views on how to deliver Early Years Assessment Tends to alter markedly from Prep-2 where assessment is designed to develop students’ reading skills and years 3 /4 where students’ ability to learn through reading is the focus. Accessing appropriate diagnostic testing for targeted teaching is also problematic. Teacher Capacity Receptiveness to new learning Parental Involvement Student self-efficacy / engagement
  • Is evident by: Lack of Whole School agreement e.g. Lack of Whole School Literacy Plan and adequate timetabling Approaches to teaching literacy vary from one grade to another, confusing students Can be Addressed by Establish a Professional and Development Culture that creates an environment which skills teachers and promotes respect, cohesion, collaboration and shared goals Whole school Literacy Plan with levelled scope and sequence charts with community inputAn agreed upon balanced literacy program and appropriate timetabling and a shared metalanguage
  • Assessment Tends to alter markedly from Prep-2 where assessment is designed to develop students’ reading skills and years 3 /4 where students’ ability to learn through reading is the focus. Accessing appropriate diagnostic testing for targeted teaching is also problematic Is evident by: Insufficient provision of support for teachers administering individual assessment Inadequate assessment materials for accurately informing targeted teaching Can be Addressed by Provision of appropriate diagnostic tools and support from administration. Whole School assessment schedule Start Early – teach the skills starting from prep that students are going to be assessed on in grade 3 / 4
  • Teacher Capacity - Receptiveness to new learning Is evident by: Ineffective models of pedagogy Lack of differentiation Lack of support for intervention beyond grade one Lack of student accountability, task ownership and specific feedback Can be Addressed by Opportunities to grow as a teacher in order to grow students Coaching and mentoring Targeted Professional Development Structured Professional Reading Instructional Leadership Teacher Professional Leave
  • Parental Involvement Is evident by: Parents less visible at school Less emphasis on reading with children at home as students move into middle primary years and develop basic independent reading skills Can be Addressed by Parent education Parent involvement in classrooms with training Continued emphasis on parent / school partnerships
  • Student self-efficacy / engagement Is evident by: Poor motivation and reluctance to read By Grades 3 /4 underachievers in reading feel helpless following repeated failure Lower expectations for success and lower persistence for reading , and reluctance to be separated from the mainstream Attribute failure to themselves and success to factors beyond their control Can be Addressed by Additional Support through intervention programs delivered by skilled practitioners Accurate diagnostic assessment and targeted direct teaching and practice Teachers who engender a love of literacy in all students and are prepared to differentiate the curriculum
  • The In Teachers' Hands project investigated the link between children's growth in English literacy in the early years of schooling and their teachers' classroom teaching practices. Below are the six characteristics indentified in the more effective early years teachers. Further information can be found at http://inteachershands.education.ecu.edu.au/ PARTICIPATION They ensured high levels of student participation •   Attention "Almost all children are focused on literacy learning." •   Engagement "Children are deeply absorbed in the literacy lesson/task." •   Stimulation "The teacher motivates interest in literacy tasks, concepts and learning." •   Pleasure "The teacher creates an enthusiastic and energetic literacy classroom." •   Consistency "Strong literacy routines are recognised and understood by the children." ORCHESTRATION They can simultaneously orchestrate the complex demands of classroom teaching •   Awareness "The teacher has a high level of awareness of literacy activities and participation by children." •   Structure "The environment is predictable and orderly." •   Flexibility "The teacher responds to learning opportunities that arise in the flow of literacy lessons." •   Pace "The teacher provides strong forward momentum in literacy lessons." •   Transition "Minimum time is spent in transitions or there is productive use of transitions."
  • DIFFERENTIATION They can target and differentiate their instruction •   Challenge "The teacher extends and promotes higher levels of thinking in literacy learning." •   Individualisation "Differentiated literacy instruction recognises individual difference” •   Inclusion "The teacher facilitates inclusion of all students in the literacy lessons." •   Variation "Literacy teaching is structured around groups or individuals." •   Connection "Connections are made between class and community literacy-related knowledge." KNOWLEDGE They are deeply knowledgeable about literacy learning •   Environment "Literate physical environment is used as a teaching resource." •   Purpose "Children's responses indicate tacit or explicit understanding of the purpose of the literacy task.” •    Substance "The lesson/task leads to substantial literacy engagement, not busy-work." •   Explanations "Explanations of literacy concepts and skills are clear and at an appropriate level." •   Modelling "Demonstrations of literacy tasks include metacognitive explanations." •   Metalanguage “ Children are provided with language for talking about and exemplifying literacy concepts."
  • SUPPORT They can support and scaffold learners at word and text levels •   Assessment "Fine-grained knowledge of children's literacy performance is used in planning and teaching." •    Scaffolding "The teacher extends children's literacy learning through modelling, modifying, correcting." •   Feedback "The teacher gives timely, focused and explicit literacy feedback to children." •    Responsiveness "The teacher shares and builds on children's literacy contributions." •   Explicitness – Word "The teacher uses explicit word and sound strategies." •   Explicitness – Text "The teacher makes explicit specific attributes of a text." •   Persistence "The teacher provides many opportunities to practise and master new literacy learning." RESPECT They can do all of this in classrooms characterised by mutual respect •   Warmth "Welcoming, positive and inviting classroom is focussed on literacy learning." •   Rapport "Relationships with the children support tactful literacy interventions." •   Credibility “ Respect for the teacher enables her to overcome any challenges to order and lesson flow." •   Citizenship "Equality, tolerance, inclusivity and awareness of the needs of others are promoted." •   Independence " Children take some responsibility for their own literacy learning.”
  • These are the success criteria against which the children and teacher judge how well they are doing
  • These are the success criteria against which the children and teacher judge how well they are doing
  • These are the success criteria against which the children and teacher judge how well they are doing
  • What are Literacy circles? In a nutshell reading circles are a structured reading activity that allows powerful, high-level discussion and thinking to take place around stories and non-fiction texts. Many of the texts used are short stories, shorter pieces of non-fiction and extracts from novels and plays. The outcome is sophisticated book club type discussions. It is a time for students to: select, read and discuss their own texts connect with stories, articles, novels take responsibility as readers and group members construct meaning together begin to debate and challenge one another develop interpersonal skills develop higher order thinking skills develop reflective and met cognitive skills
  • Each group member agrees to take specific responsibilities during discussion sessions. The circles meet regularly, and the discussion roles change at each meeting. When the group finishes a text, the members decide on a way to showcase their work for the rest of the class. Reading circles uses shorter texts such as short stories, extracts from longer work, and non-fiction pieces instead of novels.
  • Roles - at the start everyone has a job By introducing reading circles using predefined roles students are assisted in developing the initial strategies that good readers use. The model is based on the co-operative learning of Johnson & Johnson which has students take roles, set tasks, set times, and includes reflection. The roles are used in the initial stages to provide scaffolding for discussion and eventually the roles are not explicitly used. The aim is to have a purposeful discussion about the piece of text students have read. Questioner writes questions that will lead to discussion by the group. Illustrator uses some form of artwork to represent a significant scene or idea from the reading. Passage selector points out interesting or important passages within the reading. Word wizard discusses words in the text that are unusual, interesting, or difficult to understand. Connector finds connections between the reading material and something outside the text, such as a personal experience, a topic studied in another class, or a different work of literature. This reminds me of... Text to text; text to self; text to world. Summariser prepares a brief summary of the reading - the gist, key points, and the essence.
  • Purposes and benefits of guided reading: The children are using and developing the reading strategies that the teacher has demonstrated in shared reading Opportunities are provided for children to interact with the teacher and the text Children are able to explore the structures and features of language Children are encouraged to talk, read and think their way through a text The teacher is able to observe, assess and support children as they read 4. 5. 6. Teaching Consolidate the children’s skills and strategies Introduce new concepts, vocabulary, punctuation Praise successful problem-solving and self-correction
  • 2. Introduce the text Discuss the content of the book in relation to the children’s own experiences Read and discuss the title of the book Summarise the content ‘ Walk through’ the book using the illustrations, describing the content on each page, using the tense of the book and asking questions that model the language structures
  • 3. Independent reading Each child reads independently at their own pace, using the cueing strategies demonstrated in Shared Reading sessions The teacher moves around the group, listening to individual children, prompting them where necessary and assessing understanding and progress
  • Early-finishers’ activities Re-read the book Read with a partner Retell the story to a partner Choose a favourite part or character Identify the most interesting fact (nonfiction) Identify words with particular spelling pattens eg double letter words; silent letters etc
  • Discussion Share responses to the text Focus on the children’s understanding
  • Teaching Consolidate the children’s skills and strategies Introduce new concepts, vocabulary, punctuation Praise successful problem-solving and self-correction
  • Five key components of reading: In order for children to become highly effective readers, it is essential that all five components of the reading process are explicitly taught, in a focussed and comprehensive manner. The five components of reading are: Phonemic Awareness – Attentiveness to the sounds of spoken language Phonics – Decoding unfamiliar words using knowledge of the alphabet principle. Fluency – Grade appropriate oral reading with appropriate speed, accuracy and expression. Vocabulary Development - Knowledge of word meanings to facilitate effective spoken and written language communication. Text Comprehension – Use of a variety of comprehension strategies to monitor comprehension to construct meaning from print.
  • Phonemic Awareness Effective Phonemic Awareness is "the ability to notice, think about, and work with reading the individual sound in spoken words" (Put Reading First, 2001, p.2). These individual sounds are called phonemes. Evidence suggests that phonemic awareness instruction draws attention to the sounds that comprise words enhance the beginning reader's ability to decode, comprehend, and spell. The more general term, phonological awareness, refers to the ability to distinguish sounds in the everyday environment. Phonological awareness involves working with the sounds of language at the word, syllable, and phoneme level. Phonemic Awareness InstructionWhat Students Need to LearnHow to Teach It The spoken words consist of individual sounds (phonemes). How words can be segmented (pulled apart) into sounds, and how these sounds can be blended (put back together) and manipulated (added, deleted, and substituted). How to use their phonemic awareness to blend sounds to read words and to segment sounds in words to spell them.Provide explicit and systematic instruction focusing on only one or two phonemic awareness skills at a time, such as segmenting and blending. Link sounds to letters as soon as possible using letters as manipulatives for segmenting and blending activities. Use screening and progress monitoring phonemic awareness assessments to inform instruction. Provide intensive interventions for students who are not making adequate progress. Time: Allow 20 hours of targeted instruction throughout each year with individual sessions of no more than 30 minutes. Grouping: small group instruction is preferable to individual or whole group instruction. Use active teaching strategies such as modeling, demonstration, and explanation.
  • Phonics Effective Phonics instruction teaches students the alphabetic principle relating reading sounds (phonemes) to letters (graphemes). Learning to read unfamiliar but decodable English words requires the use of phonics. The goal of phonics instruction is to teach students that there are "systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds" (Put Reading First, p.12). Learning the common letter-sound correspondences in English and techniques for blending the sounds to read regularly spelled words contributes to the ease with which beginners automatically recognize isolated written words as well as words within connected text. At the center of the recommendations regarding the teaching of phonics is the importance of systematic and explicit phonics instruction (Put Reading First, pp. 13-15). PhonicsWhat Students Need to LearnHow to Teach It Accurate and rapid identification of the letters of the alphabet. The alphabetic principle (an understanding that the sequence of sounds or phonemes in a spoken word are represented by letters in a written word. Phonics elements (e.g., letter-sound correspondences, spelling patterns, syllables and meaningful words parts). How to apply phonics elements as they read and write. Provide explicit, systematic phonics instruction that teaches sound-symbol relationships in sequence. Provide explicit instruction in blending sounds to read words. Include practice in reading texts that are written for students to use their phonics knowledge to decode words. Provide ample opportunities for students to practice spelling words they can decode and decoding words they can spell. Use screening and progress monitoring assessment to inform phonics instruction.Provide intensive instruction to students who are not making adequate progress in decoding, using diagnostic assessment to target specific sound-syllable associations or decoding skills with which students need additional practice.
  • Fluency Effective Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately and quickly (Put Reading First, p. 22). Fluency is important because it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. When fluent readers read silently, they recognize words automatically and are able to concentrate on the meaning of the text. Less fluent readers must focus their attention on decoding individual words and therefore have little attention left for understanding text. FluencyWhat Students Need to LearnHow to Teach It How to decode isolated words accurately. How to read connected text automatically with appropriate speed, accuracy, and expression. Provide opportunities for students to practice reading isolated words. Provide opportunities for students to practice repeated oral reading with guidance from teachers, peers (e.g., partner reading) and/or parents. Provide opportunities for students to read aloud in groups (e.g., choral reading) or to reread text independently (e.g., reading along with audiotape) Periodic assessment of reading fluency to monitor student progress toward achieving established fluency benchmarks.
  • Vocabulary Development Effective Vocabulary knowledge has long been recognized in the development of reading skills (National Panel Report, p.13). There are two types of vocabulary, oral and print. Oral vocabulary refers to words that are used in speaking or recognized when listening. Print vocabulary is synonymous with reading vocabulary and refers to words we recognize and use in print. Vocabulary is an important part of learning to read. Beginning readers use the words they have heard to make sense of the words they see in print and will have a more difficult time reading words that are not part of their oral vocabulary. Vocabulary is also part of reading comprehension. As children learn to read more advanced texts, they must learn the meaning of new words that are not part of their oral vocabulary (Put Reading First, p.34). Vocabulary can be developed in two ways, indirectly and directly. Indirectly refers to when students engage daily in oral language, listen to adults read to them, and read extensively on their own. Directly refers to when students are explicitly taught both individual words and word learning strategies. Vocabulary Development What Students Need to Learn How to Teach it The meanings for most of the words in a text so they can understand what they read. How to apply a variety of strategies to learn words meanings. How to make connections between words and concepts. How to accurately use words in oral and written language. Provide direct, explicit instruction to help students learn word meanings. Provide many opportunities for students to read in and out of school to encourage indirect learning of vocabulary. Introduce new vocabulary in multiple contexts. Engage children in daily interactions that promote using new vocabulary in both oral and written language. Enrich and expand the vocabulary knowledge of English language learners. Actively involve students connecting concepts and words.
  • Text Comprehension Effective Text Comprehension is "intentional thinking during which meaning is constructed through interactions between text and reader". Research suggests that text comprehension is enhanced when readers actively relate the ideas represented in print to their own knowledge and experiences and construct mental pictures in their memory. The National Reading Panel recommends that beginning reading instruction include the following strategies. Text Comprehension What Students Need to Learn How to Teach it How to read both narrative and expository texts. How to understand and remember what they read. How to relate their own knowledge or experiences to text. How to use comprehension strategies to improve their comprehension. How to communicate with others about what they read. Explicitly explain, model and teach comprehension strategies such as monitoring, use of graphic and semantic organizers, asking and answering questions, previewing and summarizing; use of multiple strategies (e.g., cooperative learning and reciprocal teaching). Provide opportunities for students to practice using strategies when reading Include pre-reading, reading, and post-reading comprehension activities during instruction. Promote thinking and extend understanding by asking questions and encouraging student questions and discussions. Use screening and progress monitoring assessment to track the progress of individual students. Follow up with diagnostic assessment to target specific strategies with which students may need additional intervention.
  • TPL Final Presentation

    1. 1. Addressing the Gap Reading Interventions for Struggling Grade Three & Four Students
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Evidence of decline in reading achievement for some children around the age of 9-10 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>few specialised interventions in place to address this systemic failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>beyond Reading Recovery, these children face a lonely battle to succeed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>There were attempts by committed teachers to personalise learning through focussed and targeted differentiation within their classrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>Future data will provide further evidence as to whether this mainstream approach is able to effectively meet the needs of ‘at risk’ students. </li></ul>
    3. 3. What are these students like? <ul><li>They are: </li></ul><ul><li>a diverse group </li></ul><ul><li>the majority are boys </li></ul><ul><li>disengaged </li></ul><ul><li>disruptive </li></ul><ul><li>lack self-management strategies </li></ul><ul><li>have low self efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>have trouble with text books </li></ul><ul><li>have trouble understanding in what is involved in tasks </li></ul><ul><li>feel distrustful of teachers </li></ul><ul><li>have a dependence on decoding </li></ul><ul><li>high absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>passive processes </li></ul><ul><li>lack initiative </li></ul>
    4. 4. Fluent Vs Impaired Readers <ul><li>Left FMRI shows fluent reader: occipito-temporal region is activated, responsible for visual processing </li></ul><ul><li>Right MRI shows dyslexic reader: more sounding out in Broca’s area in frontal lobe </li></ul>Engaging Struggling Readers See Powerpoint ‘Engaging Struggling Readers’
    5. 5. Overview <ul><li>‘ Without effective, specialised help, they are doomed </li></ul><ul><li>to school failure, illiteracy and severely limited life </li></ul><ul><li>chances.’ (Clay, M.M., and Tuck, B. 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Our project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is based on the philosophy that all children can learn given the ‘right’ conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seeks to address the needs of ‘hardest to teach’ students by linking effective teaching pedagogy with an understanding of the precise difficulties experienced during their struggle to be competent readers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>believes that the challenges of bringing about successful outcomes for these children is achievable and critical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges the system to invest knowledge and resources through deeper recognition of the problem </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Acknowledgments <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>the commitment and collaboration of the team </li></ul><ul><li>the generosity of the schools and colleagues we visited. </li></ul><ul><li>access TPL (Teacher Professional Leave) which made our combined efforts possible </li></ul><ul><li>We also thank our own schools and students for allowing us to be absent for the duration of our study. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Thanks <ul><li>Schools visited: </li></ul><ul><li>Woodend -Andy Kozack and Bev Saddler </li></ul><ul><li>New Gisborne – Suzanne Cooke and Jill Plumber </li></ul><ul><li>Our Lady of the Rosary Kyneton – Anne </li></ul><ul><li>Mildura South - Marie Therese O’Leary </li></ul><ul><li>Irymple South - Robyn Gallagher </li></ul><ul><li>Red Cliffs East – Kim Ryan </li></ul><ul><li>Nichols Point – Jo McQuinn </li></ul><ul><li>Holy Rosary Heathcote-Melanie </li></ul><ul><li>Heathcote-Michael Saunders </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Gully – Ann Rochford </li></ul><ul><li>Camp Hill – Jill Scobie and Sue Prentice </li></ul><ul><li>Tasmania-Louise Anders </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Therapist: Christine Sertori </li></ul><ul><li>SRA Rep: Di Mcpherson </li></ul><ul><li>Lioncrest Rep: Liz </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective Reading Tutor : Genevieve Hosking </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Officers </li></ul><ul><li>Sue Hinton </li></ul><ul><li>Helen Bandrowski (Catholic Education)) </li></ul><ul><li>Pam Toose </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Nicolson </li></ul><ul><li>Anne Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Anne Baird </li></ul><ul><li>John Walsh </li></ul><ul><li>Rob Sbaglia </li></ul><ul><li>Philip Holmes-Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Tamara Downey </li></ul><ul><li>Andrea Chalmers </li></ul><ul><li>Yvonne Madden </li></ul><ul><li>Trish Priest </li></ul><ul><li>ERIK Tutors: Kim Cheep and Leonie </li></ul><ul><li>NAPLAN Documentation: Kangaroo Flat – Brooke Benendick </li></ul>
    8. 8. Proposal <ul><li>Major factors identified as negatively </li></ul><ul><li>impacting on reading success for students in </li></ul><ul><li>Grades 3 /4 </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistency in teaching practices </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Parental Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Student self-efficacy / engagement </li></ul>
    9. 9. Inconsistency in teaching practices <ul><li>Is evident by: </li></ul><ul><li>lack of Whole School agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Can be addressed by: </li></ul><ul><li>establishing a professional development culture </li></ul><ul><li>developing a whole school literacy plan and scope and sequence charts </li></ul>
    10. 10. Assessment <ul><li>Is evident by: </li></ul><ul><li>insufficient provision of support </li></ul><ul><li>inadequate assessment materials </li></ul><ul><li>Can be addressed by: </li></ul><ul><li>provision of appropriate diagnostic tools and support from administration </li></ul><ul><li>whole school assessment schedule </li></ul>
    11. 11. Teacher Capacity <ul><li>Is evident by: </li></ul><ul><li>ineffective models of pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>lack of differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>lack of support for intervention beyond grade one </li></ul><ul><li>lack of student accountability, task ownership and specific feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Can be addressed by: </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities to grow as a teacher in order to grow students </li></ul><ul><li>coaching and mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>targeted professional development </li></ul><ul><li>structured professional reading </li></ul><ul><li>instructional leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Professional Leave </li></ul>
    12. 12. Parental Involvement <ul><li>Is evident by: </li></ul><ul><li>parents less visible at school </li></ul><ul><li>Can be addressed by: </li></ul><ul><li>parent education </li></ul><ul><li>parent involvement in classrooms with training </li></ul><ul><li>continued emphasis on parent / school partnerships </li></ul>Introduction Reading Writing Speaking & Listening
    13. 13. Student self-efficacy / engagement <ul><li>Is evident by: </li></ul><ul><li>poor motivation and reluctance to read </li></ul><ul><li>Can be addressed by </li></ul><ul><li>additional support </li></ul><ul><li>accurate diagnostic assessment </li></ul><ul><li>targeted direct teaching practice </li></ul><ul><li>teachers who engender a love of literacy in all students </li></ul>
    14. 14. Effective Teaching <ul><li>Six characteristics indentified in the more effective early years teachers . </li></ul><ul><li>PARTICIPATION - They ensured high levels of student participation </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>ORCHESTRATION - They can simultaneously orchestrate the complex demands of classroom teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Pace </li></ul><ul><li>Transition </li></ul>
    15. 15. Effective Teaching <ul><li>DIFFERENTIATION They can target and differentiate their instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Individualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Variation </li></ul><ul><li>Connection </li></ul><ul><li>KNOWLEDGE They are deeply knowledgeable about literacy learning </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Substance </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Metalanguage </li></ul>
    16. 16. Effective Teaching <ul><li>SUPPORT They can support and scaffold learners at word and text levels </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Explicitness – Word </li></ul><ul><li>Explicitness – Text </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence </li></ul><ul><li>RESPECT They can do all of this in classrooms characterised </li></ul><ul><li>by mutual respect </li></ul><ul><li>Warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul>
    17. 17. Learning Intentions WALT W e A re L earning T o
    18. 18. Success Indicators Wilf W hat I ’m L ooking F or
    19. 19. Reflection Tib T his I s B ecause
    20. 20. Intervention Programs <ul><li>Enhancing Reading Intervention for at Risk Students (ERIK) - University of Melbourne and Catholic Education Office Melbourne </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges ( Intervention )- Department of Education Tasmania </li></ul><ul><li>Rainbow Reading (Intervention) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Recovery (Intervention) - Marie Clay </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective Reading SRA (Intervention) </li></ul><ul><li>Catch a Falling Star (Intervention) - Catholic Education Office Melbourne </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s Literacy Success Strategy ( CLaSS ) University of Melbourne and Catholic Education Office Melbourne </li></ul><ul><li>Science Research Associates SRA Reading Labs - McGraw Hill, Columbus , Ohio </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Scientific Investigation ( CSI ) - Lioncrest </li></ul><ul><li>STARS - Hawker Brownlow Education </li></ul><ul><li>WA First Steps Early Years Department of Education, Employment and Training Victoria. (Longman) </li></ul><ul><li>MULTILIT – Making Up for Lost Time in Literacy </li></ul>
    21. 21. Formal Assessment <ul><li>Developmental Assessment Resources for Teachers (DART ) _ Australian Council for Education Research </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive Achievement Tests in Reading (PAT-R ) -Australian Council for Educational Research </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive Achievement Tests in Reading (PAT-R 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH ) -Australian Council for Educational Research </li></ul><ul><li>Neale Analysis of Reading Ability - Australian Council for Educational Research </li></ul><ul><li>Writing and Reading Assessment Profile (WRAP) - </li></ul><ul><li>Probe Reading Assessment - 2nd edition- Pool and Parkin, 2002, Triune Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>LEXILES </li></ul><ul><li>CARS- Series B Teacher Guide 2006Hawker Brownlow Education </li></ul><ul><li>Peter’s Dictation </li></ul><ul><li>South Australian Spelling Test </li></ul><ul><li>Read and Retell - Literacy Professional learning Resource – Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>On Demand Testing -Education Department </li></ul><ul><li>PM Benchmark Kit- Nelleye & Smith 2000,nferNelson </li></ul><ul><li>Observation Survey- Marie Clay </li></ul><ul><li>Assess Now </li></ul>
    22. 22. Making a Difference
    23. 23. Making a Difference
    24. 24. Reading
    25. 25. Literacy Circles <ul><li>What are Literacy Circles? </li></ul><ul><li>sophisticated book club type discussions </li></ul><ul><li>structured reading activity </li></ul><ul><li>powerful, high-level discussion and thinking </li></ul><ul><li>short stories, shorter pieces of non-fiction and extracts from novels and plays </li></ul>
    26. 26. Literacy Circles <ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>select, read and discuss their own texts </li></ul><ul><li>connect with stories, articles, novels </li></ul><ul><li>take responsibility as readers and group members </li></ul><ul><li>construct meaning together </li></ul><ul><li>begin to debate and challenge one another </li></ul><ul><li>develop interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>develop higher order thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>develop reflective and met cognitive skills </li></ul>
    27. 27. Literacy Circles <ul><li>Group members: </li></ul><ul><li>take specific responsibilities during discussion sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>meet regularly, </li></ul><ul><li>discussion roles change at each meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>showcase their work for the rest of the class after finishing </li></ul>
    28. 28. Literacy Circles <ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Questioner writes questions that will lead to discussion by the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrator uses some form of artwork to represent a significant scene or idea from the reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Passage selector points out interesting or important passages within the reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Word wizard discusses words in the text that are unusual, interesting, or difficult to understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Connector finds connections between the reading material and something outside the text, </li></ul><ul><li>Summariser prepares a brief summary of the reading - the gist, key points, and the essence. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Literacy Circles to E 5 Engage <ul><li>Stimulate interest and curiosity, promote questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Connect learning to real world experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to past experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Present a purpose for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Determine challenging goals </li></ul><ul><li>Make assessment and performance requirements clear </li></ul><ul><li>Be explicit in what children are going to learn </li></ul><ul><li>All participants are included and expected to have input </li></ul><ul><li>Group dynamics, boundaries and respect is explicitly taught and modelled </li></ul><ul><li>Students are clear on roles and gradually take ownership of the circle </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure reading is linked to ability and connected to interests </li></ul><ul><li>Model by reading aloud so everyone can follow </li></ul>
    30. 30. Literacy Circles to E 5 Explore <ul><li>Provide tools and procedures for students to organise information and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor own thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what the kids know </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Organise students with particular roles for Reading Circles ie. Questioner, passage selector, illustrator, connector, word watcher and summariser. </li></ul><ul><li>Students make decisions, give reasons </li></ul><ul><li>I wonder questions - What are you wondering about? </li></ul>Explore <ul><li>Provide tools and procedures for students to organise information and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor own thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what the kids know </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Organise students with particular roles for Reading Circles ie. Questioner, passage selector, Illustrator, connector, word watcher and summariser. </li></ul><ul><li>Students make decisions, give reasons </li></ul><ul><li>I wonder questions - What are you wondering about? </li></ul>
    31. 31. Literacy Circles to E 5 Explain <ul><li>Explicitly teach relevant knowledge, concepts and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher provides strategies to enable students to connect and organise new and existing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Presents new content/strengthens connections </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about what they have learnt </li></ul><ul><li>Think-pair-Share </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Questioner – after writing questions to the person beside and share questions and add more to the text </li></ul><ul><li>Explain their choices and provide evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Role of word wizard selects vocabulary, work from text, then source out word </li></ul>
    32. 32. Literacy Circles to E 5 Elaborate <ul><li>Extending and refining student’s understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Progressively build students ability to transfer and generalise their learning </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivates higher order thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher monitors student understanding, providing explicit feedback and adjusts instruction accordingly </li></ul><ul><li>Make connections using vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate what inferences are being made </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>students come together and discuss what they have learnt </li></ul><ul><li>Role of summariser to elaborate on what was learnt </li></ul>
    33. 33. Literacy Circles to E 5 Evaluate <ul><li>Students self assess and reflect on their learning processes and the impact of effort on achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers provide feedback and assist students to evaluate their progress and achievements </li></ul><ul><li>Guide students to identify future goals </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher provides regular and constructive feedback via roaming and taking notes </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors group behaviours and discussions </li></ul><ul><li>At conclusion ask for general comments-what they did well and one thing they think they need to improve on next time </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective journal – using stems (wondering starters ) </li></ul>
    34. 34. Reciprocal Reading <ul><ul><li>I think …because… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll bet …because… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I wonder if …because… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I imagine …because… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I suppose ...because… </li></ul></ul>Predicting Adapted from the work of L. Oczkus & A. Bruce I think…
    35. 35. Reciprocal Reading <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I don’t understand the part about …, so I: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This doesn’t make sense, so I … : </li></ul><ul><li>I can’t figure out …, so I: </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reread, reread, reread. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read on for clues. </li></ul><ul><li>Check the parts of the word I know. </li></ul><ul><li>Blend the sounds of the word. </li></ul><ul><li>Reread the sentence to see if it makes sense. </li></ul><ul><li>Try another word. </li></ul>Mmmm, that’s clearer. Adapted from the work of L. Oczkus & A. Bruce
    36. 36. Reciprocal Reading <ul><li>When questioning with fiction and nonfiction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions based on the text. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask questions that are based on the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>main idea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask some detail-oriented questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask some inferential questions. </li></ul><ul><li>When questioning with nonfiction only: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions based on text features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>such as maps, captions, and diagrams. </li></ul></ul>Questioning Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? What if? Adapted from the work of L. Oczkus & A. Bruce
    37. 37. Reciprocal Reading <ul><li>When summarizing fiction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retell the story in your own words. Include the setting, characters, problem, key events, and resolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give only key points that add up (+) to a short summary. </li></ul><ul><li>Use logical order. </li></ul><ul><li>Reread to remember main ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to illustrations to summarize. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Somebody Wanted But So. </li></ul><ul><li>When summarizing nonfiction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave out unnecessary details. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refer to illustrations, headings, and other text features. </li></ul>Summarizing First,… Next,… Then,… Finally,… Adapted from the work of L. Oczkus & A. Bruce
    38. 38. Guided Reading <ul><li>Purposes and benefits of guided </li></ul><ul><li>reading </li></ul><ul><li>using and developing the reading strategies </li></ul><ul><li>interact with the teacher and the text </li></ul><ul><li>exploration of the structures and features of </li></ul><ul><li>language </li></ul><ul><li>talk, read and think their way through a text </li></ul><ul><li>observation, assessment and support </li></ul>
    39. 39. Guided Reading <ul><li>Suggested structure </li></ul><ul><li>identify a suitable text and focus for the session ( individual copies of the book) </li></ul><ul><li>text will be one that the children have not read before </li></ul><ul><li>familiarise yourself with the text </li></ul><ul><li>consider questions you will ask to support the children’s reading </li></ul><ul><li>consider elements that will help children as they read </li></ul>
    40. 40. Guided Reading <ul><li>Independent reading </li></ul><ul><li>Each child reads independently at their own pace, </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher moves around the group, listening to individual children, prompting, assessing understanding and progress </li></ul>
    41. 41. Guided Reading <ul><li>Early-finishers’ activities </li></ul><ul><li>Re-read the book </li></ul><ul><li>Read with a partner </li></ul><ul><li>Retell the story to a partner </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a favourite part or character </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the most interesting fact (nonfiction) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify words with particular spelling patterns eg double letter words; silent letters etc. </li></ul>
    42. 42. Guided Reading <ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>share responses to the text </li></ul><ul><li>focus on the children’s understanding </li></ul><ul><li>record reflective response to skills acquired during the session </li></ul><ul><li>clarify any misunderstandings and unfamiliar vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>reinforce reading strategies. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Guided Reading <ul><li>Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>consolidate the children’s skills and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>introduce new concepts, vocabulary and punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>praise successful problem-solving and self-correction </li></ul><ul><li>provide timely prompts for powerful teaching </li></ul>
    44. 44. Planning for Reading <ul><li>Five key components of reading: </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemic Awareness – Attentiveness to the sounds of spoken language </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics – Decoding unfamiliar words using knowledge of the alphabet principle. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency – Grade appropriate oral reading with appropriate speed, accuracy and expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Development - Knowledge of word meanings to facilitate effective spoken and written language communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Text Comprehension – Use of a variety of comprehension strategies to monitor comprehension to construct meaning from print. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Phonemic Awareness <ul><li>What Students Need to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>The spoken words consist of individual sounds (phonemes). </li></ul><ul><li>How words can be segmented (pulled apart) into sounds, and how these sounds can be blended (put back together) and manipulated (added, deleted, and substituted). </li></ul><ul><li>How to use their phonemic awareness to blend sounds to read words and to segment sounds in words to spell them. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Phonics <ul><li>What Students Need to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate and rapid identification of the letters of the alphabet. </li></ul><ul><li>The alphabetic principle - an understanding that the sequence of sounds or phonemes in a spoken word are represented by letters in a written word. </li></ul><ul><li>Phonic elements (e.g., letter-sound correspondences, spelling patterns, syllables and meaningful words parts). </li></ul><ul><li>How to apply phonics elements as they read and write. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Fluency <ul><li>What Students Need to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>How to read connected text automatically with appropriate speed, accuracy, and expression. </li></ul><ul><li>How to accurately process text on the run. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Vocabulary Development <ul><li>What Students Need to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>The meanings for most of the words in a text so they can understand what they read. </li></ul><ul><li>How to apply a variety of strategies to develop an understanding of unfamiliar words </li></ul><ul><li>How to access resources, such as dictionaries, word lists and thesaurus. </li></ul><ul><li>How to make connections between words and concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>How to accurately use words in oral and written language, including technical terminology. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Text Comprehension
    50. 50. Conclusion <ul><li>OUR PROJECT </li></ul><ul><li>is based on anecdotal evidence gathered from a variety of colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>drew on our own experiences as professional people who are close to the action. </li></ul><ul><li>represents an extensive review of literature, particularly focussing on engaging struggling readers. </li></ul><ul><li>looks at success factors for reading </li></ul><ul><li>used NAPLAN evidence to verify these state wide claims. </li></ul>
    51. 51. <ul><ul><li>investigate characteristics of a balanced literacy program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>detailed planning – ‘every lesson counts’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focussed teaching with differentiation that checks for understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>structured, well timed lessons to maximise learning outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make connections and engaging students’ interests and backgrounds. </li></ul></ul>Recommendations
    52. 52. Recommendations <ul><li>allow more opportunities for building teacher capacity </li></ul><ul><li>recognise and promote the educational benefits of the parent/teacher partnership </li></ul><ul><li>identify and track low achieving students throughout their schooling </li></ul><ul><li>provide additional assistance </li></ul><ul><li>embrace instructional leadership </li></ul><ul><li>provide student accountability and ownership of tasks and constructive, specific and targeted feedback </li></ul>

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