Santrock tls 5_ppt_ch09


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Santrock tls 5_ppt_ch09

  1. 1. A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Chapter Nine: </li></ul><ul><li>Language Development </li></ul>John W. Santrock
  2. 2. What is Language? <ul><li>Defining language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, based on system of symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infinite generativity: ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genie, Wild Boy of Aveyron: raise questions about determinants of language </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Language’s Rule Systems Phonology Sound system of language; how the sounds are used, combined — phoneme : smallest unit of sound Morphology Morphemes : units of meaning in word formation Syntax Ways words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences Semantics Meanings of words and sentences Pragmatics Appropriate use of language in context; can be cery complex
  4. 4. How Language Develops <ul><li>Infancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Babbling, gestures, and other vocalizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crying present at birth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooing: occurs at 2 to 4 months of age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Babbling: begins at about 6 months of age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures: begin 8 to 12 months of age </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. How Language Develops <ul><li>Infants recognizing language sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Citizens of the world” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newborns recognize sound changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize own language sounds at 6 months </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptive exceeds spoken vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing of first word, vocabulary spurt varies </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. How Language Develops <ul><li>Infants recognizing language sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asian child learns verbs earlier than child learning English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referential and expressive styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overextension and underextension of words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-word utterances (18-24 months of age) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telegraphic speech </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Variation in Language Milestones Fig. 9.3
  8. 8. How Language Develops <ul><li>Early childhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex sentences at 2 to 3 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become more sensitive to language sounds; morphology rules, some overgeneralizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn and apply syntax rules; auxillary-inversion rule takes longer </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. How Language Develops <ul><li>Early childhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary development is dramatic to age 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many hypotheses why this occurs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give novel labels to novel objects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of mutual exclusivity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefit from hearing mature speakers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. How Language Develops <ul><li>SES is linked to language development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welfare parents talk less to their children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide less elaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Talk less about past events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal language and literacy skills positively related to child’s vocabulary; not talkativeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent pointing, gestures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of diverse vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Language Input and Young Children’s Vocabulary Development Fig. 9.6
  12. 12. Fig. 9.6 Language Input and Young Children’s Vocabulary Development
  13. 13. How Language Develops <ul><li>Advances in pragmatics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6-year-old is better conversationalist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young children start using extended discourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learn cultural rules, politeness, and become sensitive to adapting their speech to the setting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 4 to 5: can change speech style at will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More polite, formal when with adults </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. How Language Develops <ul><li>Middle and late childhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New skills learned when entering school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabetic principle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning diverse uses of language, sounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary and grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process of categorizing becomes easier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From age 6 to 11 — 14,000 to 40,000 words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved logical reasoning, analytic skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. How Language Develops <ul><li>Middle and late childhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of metalingusitic awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge about language; improves considerably during elementary school years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In adolescence: most know rules for appropriate language use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child with large vocabulary learns to read easier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary development linked to comprehension </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. How Language Develops <ul><li>Middle and late childhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole language approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction to parallel child’s natural language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning; reading should be whole, meaningful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic-skills-and-phonics approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction should teach phonics and its basic rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading should involve simplified materials </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. How Language Develops <ul><li>Middle and late childhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2- to 3-year-olds emerge from scribbling to begin printing letters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most 4-year-olds can print their names; most 5-year-olds can reproduce letters, words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reversed letters are normal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adults should encourage early writing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. How Language Develops <ul><li>Middle and late childhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Years of practice needed for good writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to cognitive and language skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns about students’ writing competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grades 4 to 12: about 70% are low-achieving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High school grads: 50% not ready for college-level writing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good writing results from good teaching efforts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. How Language Develops <ul><li>Bilingualism and second language learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitive periods vary across different language systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Native-like accent best learned before age 12 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adults learn faster than children, attainment not as high as children’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. students lag behind students in developed countries in learning a second language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States: many miss out on benefits of bilingualism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. How Language Develops <ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased use and understanding of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sophisticated words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis and abstract thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphors : implied comparison of unlike things </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satire : use of irony, derision, or wit to expose folly or wickedness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. How Language Develops <ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much better at organizing ideas and writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dialect : variety of language distinguished by vocabulary, grammar, or pronunciation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescent dialect with peers often uses jargon or slang </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually used to indicate group membership </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. How Language Develops <ul><li>Adulthood and aging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinct personal linguistic style is part of identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary often continues to increase throughout adult years until late adulthood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most common complaint: retrieving words, hard to hear in less than ideal listening conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-language factors may be cause of decline in language skills in older adults </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Biological and Environmental Influences <ul><li>Biological influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution and the brain’s role in language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human language acquired 100,000 years ago </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific brain regions predisposed to language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wernicke’s area: in brain’s left hemisphere involved in language comprehension </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Biological and Environmental Influences <ul><li>Biological influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broca’s area: in brain’s left frontal lobe involved in speech production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If damaged — fluent incomprehensible speech produced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aphasia : language disorder resulting from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brain damage; loss of ability to use words </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Broca’s and Wernicke’s Areas of the Brain Fig. 9.7
  26. 26. Biological and Environmental Influences <ul><li>Chomsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans biologically prewired for language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language acquisition device (LAD) : biological endowment to detect features, rules of language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical, not physical part of brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of uniformity in language milestones across languages and cultures </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Biological and Environmental Influences <ul><li>Environmental influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral View </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language is reinforced chain of responses; a complex skill that is learned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot explain creation of novel sentences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children learn syntax of native language without reinforcement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No longer considered a viable explanation </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Biological and Environmental Influences <ul><li>Environmental influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children interested in their social world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child-directed speech : higher pitch for attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents, older children modify their speech </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other strategies: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recasting, Expanding, Labeling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Biological and Environmental Influences <ul><li>An interactionist view of language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language has strong biological foundations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition influenced by experiences; enriched environments have more positive effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide: language milestones reached about the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children acquire native language without explicit teaching; some without encouragement </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Biological and Environmental Influences <ul><li>An interactionist view of language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bruner: stresses roles of parents and teachers help construct language acquisition support system ( LASS ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sociocultural context is extremely important in understanding children’s language development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resembles Vygotsky’s ZPD </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The End