502 1&10


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502 1&10

  1. 1. Language and Language Disorders Chapter One
  2. 2. Speech, Language and Communication <ul><li>Speech : the neuromuscular act of producing sounds that are used in language. </li></ul><ul><li>Language : is a rule-governed symbol system for communicating meaning through a shared code of arbitrary symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication : the process participants use to exchange information, ideas, needs and desires. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Communication <ul><li>Four elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sender of the message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver of the message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared intent to communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared means of communication </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Language Disorders <ul><li>American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) definition of language disorder: </li></ul><ul><li>A language disorder is impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written, and/or other symbol systems. This disorder may involve (1) the form of language (phonology, morphology,syntax, (2) the content of language (semantics), and/or (3) the function of language in communication (pragmatics) in any combination. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Language Disorders <ul><li>Disorders in comprehension of language and language production. </li></ul><ul><li>Receptive and expressive language problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Either spoken or written language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems in writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorder not a difference </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Language Disorders <ul><li>Language disorders may be mild (problems in using metaphors in writing) to severe (no spoken language) </li></ul><ul><li>Language disorders are often associated with other disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental retardation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning disabilities </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Characteristics of Children with Language and Communication Disorders <ul><li>Academic performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reluctance to contribute to discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to follow directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty producing sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusion or rejection by other children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty carrying on a conversation </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Characteristics of Children with Language and Communication Disorders <ul><li>Cognitive functioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inattentiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High level of frustration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting with peers </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Assessing Language and Communication Chapter 10
  10. 10. Understanding Assessment <ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of collecting data for the purpose of making decisions about students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administering a particular set of questions to an individual or group of individuals to obtain a score </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In depth information about a specific skill area such as reading or spoken language </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Understanding Assessment <ul><li>Purposes of assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eligibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEP planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of assessment procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standardized: norm-referenced or criterion-referenced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assess current levels of functioning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Assessment of Language <ul><li>Phonology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of speech sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word endings and prefixes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nouns, verbs, adjectives and word order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary, figures of speech </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pragmatics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of speech acts and conversational rules </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Prerequisites of Language <ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn-taking behavior, gazing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic play or object permanence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech-processing abilities are intact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically capable of using and understanding language </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Preschool Language Development <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency with which the instrument measures the target skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent to which instrument measures what it purports to measure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Screening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick examination of child’s language skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More in-depth assessment should be used when a child is suspected of having significant difficulties </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Assessment Methods <ul><li>Formal procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test of specific language skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informal measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Context, materials, techniques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MLU- mean length of utterance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TTR-type token ratio- measure of semantic development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Language elicitation tasks </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pragmatic Function in Child Language <ul><li>Instrumental-satisfy needs and desires </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory-control or regulate actions of others </li></ul><ul><li>Interactional-establish interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Personal-express personal feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Heuristic-organize environment </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginative- used to create an imaginary environments </li></ul>