Inhibition against gram negative bacteria and yeast.
Extracts is effective in parasitemia.
Bacteria specifically, enteric pathogens, most notably E.coli ( but also staphylococcus, S.coli, C.jejuni, pseudomonous, salmonella, shigella, streptococcua and vibrio) and some activity against candida.
Shows histamine antagonism, hypotensive and vasodilatory activities.
Paul Ehrlich used organoarsenic (“arsenicals”) for the treatment of syphilis, demonstrating the relevance of metals, or at least metalloids, to medicine, that blossomed with Rosenberg’s discovery of the anti-cancer activity of cisplatin (cis-PtCl2(NH3)2).
Organoarsenic chemistry is the chemistry of compounds containing a chemical bond between arsenic and carbon.
A few organoarsenic compounds, also called "organoarsenicals," are produced industrially with uses as insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides.
In general these applications are declining in step with growing concerns about their impact on the environment and human health. The parent compound is arsine. Despite their toxicity, organoarsenic biomolecules are well known.
Arsenic trioxide has been used in a variety of ways over the past 200 years, but most commonly in the treatment of cancer . The US Food and Drug Administration in 2000 approved this compound for the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia that is resistant to ATRA ( all-trans retinoic acid) . It was also used as Fowler's solution in psoriasis.
Recently new research has been done in locating tumours using arsenic-74 (a positron emitter). The advantages of using this isotope instead of the previously used iodine-124 is that the signal in the PET scan is clearer as the iodine tends to transport iodine to the thyroid gland producing a lot of noise.
Arsanilic acid is the organoarsenic compound also called p -aminophenylarsenic acid. This colourless solid was used as a drug in the late 19th and early 20th centuries but is now considered prohibitively toxic. Arsanilic acid is a derivative of phenylarsonic acid with an amine in the 4-position.
Arsanilic acid was first reported in 1859 by Antoine Béchamp. Béchamp optimistically chose the name Atoxyl , referring to its reduced toxicity compared to arsenic. The original synthesis, which involved the reaction of aniline and arsenic acid, remains useful today.
Arsanilic acid was initially used in medicine to treat simple skin diseases. In 1905, two British physicians, H.W. Thomas and A. Breinl, reported that Atoxyl was active against the trypanosomes of sleeping sickness.
The effect was however not very pronounced and the necessary dosage was so high that toxic side effects far outweighed the benefits. It frequently caused blindness by damaging the optic nerve and other varied disorders.
Nevertheless, the discovery of arsanilic acid's activity against trypanosomes was the basis for a major advance by the bacteriologist Paul Ehrlich. Ehrlich, who believed that the formula was incorrect, and the organic chemist Alfred Bertheim revised the structural assignment. The correct formula suggested new ways that the atoxyl molecule could be modified, and a series of such derivatives were then synthesized. Testing for anti-syphilitic activity was performed by Sahachiro Hata who worked in Ehrlich's lab. The result of this collaboration was the discovery of the drug Salvarsan in 1909, which also was later abandoned but which accelerated the growth of medicinal chemistry.
Although the practice is controversial, arsanilic acid and related compounds are sometimes used in treating dysentery in swine.