INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE EARS MAJID MOHIUDDIN
INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE EARS• Three pathways for pathogens to enter: 1. Through eustachian (auditory) tube, from the throat and nasopharynx. 2. From external ear. 3. Through the blood or lymph.• OTITIS MEDIA: Infection of middle ear.• OTITIS EXTERNA: Infection of the outer ear canal.
OTITIS EXTERNA, EXTERNAL OTITIS, EAR CANAL INFECTION, SWIMMER’S EAR• Infection with itching, pain, malodorous discharge, tenderness, redness, swelling and impaired hearing.• Otitis externa is often referred to as swimmer’s ear.
Etiologic Agent• Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus; rarely by fungus –e.g., Aspergillus. Reservoirs and Mode of Transmission• Contaminated swimming pool water, indigenous microflora, articles. Diagnosis• Culture and Susceptibility.
OTITIS MEDIA, MIDDLE EAR INFECTION:• Develop as Complication of the common cold.• Persistent and severe earache.• Temporary hearing loss.• Pressure in middle ear.• Bulging of the eardrum (Tympanic membrane),• Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and fever in young children.• May lead to rupture of the eardrum, bloody discharge and then pus.• Severe complications: bone infection, permanent hearing loss, and meningitis.
Etiologic Agent• Bacteria: Streptococcus pneumonia (G+ve diplococcus), Haemophillus influenzae (G-ve bacillus) and Moraxella catarrhalis (G-ve diplococcus) also Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.• Virus: Measles virus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) Reservoirs and Mode of Transmission• Not Communicable Diagnosis• Culture and Sensitivity.• Beta lactamase testing for H.influenzae and S.pneumonia.