2 Previous Discussion Function Point Cocomo Model Discussion
3 The Four P’s People — the most important element of a successful project Product — the software to be built Process — the set of framework activities and software engineering tasks to get the job done Project — all work required to make the product a reality
4 Stakeholders Senior managerswho define the business issues that often have significant influence on the project. Project (technical) managers who must plan, motivate, organize, and control the practitioners who do software work. Practitionerswho deliver the technical skills that are necessary to engineer a product or application. Customerswho specify the requirements for the software to be engineered and other stakeholders who have a peripheral interest in the outcome. End-userswho interact with the software once it is released for production use.
5 How to lead? How to organize? How to collaborate? How to motivate? How to create good ideas? Software Teams
6 Team Leader The MOI Model Motivation. The ability to encourage (by “push or pull”) technical people to produce to their best ability. Organization. The ability to mold existing processes (or invent new ones) that will enable the initial concept to be translated into a final product. Ideas or innovation. The ability to encourage people to create and feel creative even when they must work within bounds established for a particular software product or application.
7 Software Teams The following factors must be considered when selecting a software project team structure ... the difficulty of the problem to be solved the size of the resultant program(s) in lines of code or function points the time that the team will stay together (team lifetime) the degree to which the problem can be modularized the required quality and reliability of the system to be built the rigidity of the delivery date the degree of sociability (communication) required for the project
8 Organizational Paradigms closed paradigm—structures a team along a traditional hierarchy of authority random paradigm—structures a team loosely and depends on individual initiative of the team members open paradigm—attempts to structure a team in a manner that achieves some of the controls associated with the closed paradigm but also much of the innovation that occurs when using the random paradigm synchronous paradigm—relies on the natural compartmentalization of a problem and organizes team members to work on pieces of the problem with little active communication among themselves suggested by Constantine [Con93]
9 Why Are Projects Late? an unrealistic deadline established by someone outside the software development group changing customer requirements that are not reflected in schedule changes; an honest underestimate of the amount of effort and/or the number of resources that will be required to do the job; predictable and/or unpredictable risks that were not considered when the project commenced; technical difficulties that could not have been foreseen in advance; human difficulties that could not have been foreseen in advance; miscommunication among project staff that results in delays; a failure by project management to recognize that the project is falling behind schedule and a lack of action to correct the problem
10 Scheduling Principles compartmentalization—define distinct tasks interdependency—indicate task interrelationship effort validation—be sure resources are available defined responsibilities—people must be assigned defined outcomes—each task must have an output defined milestones—review for quality
11 40-50% 15-20% 30-40% Effort Allocation “front end” activities customer communication analysis design review and modification construction activities coding or code generation testing and installation unit, integration white-box, black box regression
12 Defining Task Sets determine type of project assess the degree of rigor required identify adaptation criteria select appropriate software engineering tasks
13 CPM Definition: In CPM activities are shown as a network of precedence relationships using activity-on-node network construction Single estimate of activity time Deterministic activity times USED IN : Production management - for the jobs of repetitive in nature where the activity time estimates can be predicted with considerable certainty due to the existence of past experience.
15 The last activities that must be completed before an activity can begin Precedence table
16 Activity on Arc Network 2 B(8) A(3) D(12) 1 5 3 E(10) F(20) C(7) 4 The network will build up with each mouse click, in the order you would construct it on paper.
17 Event Times Earliest event timeEET Latest event timeLET Each event node needs two boxes, to mark in the event times. 2 B(8) A(3) D(12) 1 5 3 E(10) F(20) C(7) 4
18 Earliest Event Times The EET for an event occurs when all activities leading into that event are complete. 3 2 B(8) A(3) 42 12 D(12) 1 5 3 E(10) 0 F(20) C(7) 4 22 To find EETs, work forwards through the network from the start node to the finish node.
19 Latest Event Times The LET for an event is the latest it can occur without delaying subsequent events. 4 2 B(8) A(3) 42 12 D(12) 1 5 3 E(10) 0 F(20) C(7) 4 22 To find LETs, work backwards through the network from the finish node to the start node.
20 Critical Activities Critical activities are activities that cannot run late. For critical activities: Latest finish — Earliest start = length of activity 2 B(8) A(3) D(12) 1 5 3 E(10) F(20) C(7) 4 The green arrows mark the critical activities, which form the critical path. The critical path(s) must form a continuous route from the start node to the finish node.
22 Use Automated Tools toDerive a Timeline Chart
23 Schedule Tracking conduct periodic project status meetings in which each team member reports progress and problems. evaluate the results of all reviews conducted throughout the software engineering process. determine whether formal project milestones (the diamonds shown in Figure 27.3) have been accomplished by the scheduled date. compare actual start-date to planned start-date for each project task listed in the resource table (Figure 27.4). meet informally with practitioners to obtain their subjective assessment of progress to date and problems on the horizon. use earned value analysis (Section 27.6) to assess progress quantitatively.
24 Earned Value Analysis (EVA) Earned value is a measure of progress enables us to assess the “percent of completeness” of a project using quantitative analysis rather than rely on a gut feeling
25 Computing Earned Value-I The budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS) is determined for each work task represented in the schedule. BCWSi is the effort planned for work task i. To determine progress at a given point along the project schedule, the value of BCWS is the sum of the BCWSi values for all work tasks that should have been completed by that point in time on the project schedule. The BCWS values for all work tasks are summed to derive the budget at completion, BAC. Hence, BAC = ∑ (BCWSk) for all tasks k
26 Computing Earned Value-II Next, the value for budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP) is computed. The value for BCWP is the sum of the BCWS values for all work tasks that have actually been completed by a point in time on the project schedule. “the distinction between the BCWS and the BCWP is that the former represents the budget of the activities that were planned to be completed and the latter represents the budget of the activities that actually were completed.” [Wil99] Given values for BCWS, BAC, and BCWP, important progress indicators can be computed: Schedule performance index, SPI = BCWP/BCWS Schedule variance, SV = BCWP – BCWS SPI is an indication of the efficiency with which the project is utilizing scheduled resources.
27 Computing Earned Value-III Percent scheduled for completion = BCWS/BAC provides an indication of the percentage of work that should have been completed by time t. Percent complete = BCWP/BAC provides a quantitative indication of the percent of completeness of the project at a given point in time, t. Actual cost of work performed, ACWP, is the sum of the effort actually expended on work tasks that have been completed by a point in time on the project schedule. It is then possible to compute Cost performance index, CPI = BCWP/ACWP Cost variance, CV = BCWP – ACWP
28 Project Risks What can go wrong? What is the likelihood? What will the damage be? What can we do about it?
29 Reactive Risk Management project team reacts to risks when they occur mitigation—plan for additional resources in anticipation of fire fighting fix on failure—resource are found and applied when the risk strikes crisis management—failure does not respond to applied resources and project is in jeopardy
30 Proactive Risk Management formal risk analysis is performed organization corrects the root causes of risk TQM concepts and statistical SQA examining risk sources that lie beyond the bounds of the software developing the skill to manage change
31 Risk Management Paradigm control track RISK identify plan analyze
32 Risk Identification Product size—risks associated with the overall size of the software to be built or modified. Business impact—risks associated with constraints imposed by management or the marketplace. Customer characteristics—risks associated with the sophistication of the customer and the developer's ability to communicate with the customer in a timely manner. Process definition—risks associated with the degree to which the software process has been defined and is followed by the development organization. Development environment—risks associated with the availability and quality of the tools to be used to build the product. Technology to be built—risks associated with the complexity of the system to be built and the "newness" of the technology that is packaged by the system. Staff size and experience—risks associated with the overall technical and project experience of the software engineers who will do the work.
33 Risk Components performance risk—the degree of uncertainty that the product will meet its requirements and be fit for its intended use. cost risk—the degree of uncertainty that the project budget will be maintained. support risk—the degree of uncertainty that the resultant software will be easy to correct, adapt, and enhance. schedule risk—the degree of uncertainty that the project schedule will be maintained and that the product will be delivered on time.
34 Risk Projection Risk projection, also called risk estimation, attempts to rate each risk in two ways the likelihood or probability that the risk is real the consequences of the problems associated with the risk, should it occur. The are four risk projection steps: establish a scale that reflects the perceived likelihood of a risk delineate the consequences of the risk estimate the impact of the risk on the project and the product, note the overall accuracy of the risk projection so that there will be no misunderstandings.
35 Building a Risk Table Risk Probability Impact RMMM Risk Mitigation Monitoring & Management
36 Building the Risk Table Estimate the probability of occurrence Estimate the impact on the project on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 = low impact on project success 5 = catastrophic impact on project success sort the table by probability and impact
37 Risk Exposure (Impact) The overall risk exposure, RE, is determined using the following relationship [Hal98]: RE = P x C where P is the probability of occurrence for a risk, and C is the cost to the project should the risk occur.
38 Risk Exposure Example Risk identification. Only 70 percent of the software components scheduled for reuse will, in fact, be integrated into the application. The remaining functionality will have to be custom developed. Risk probability. 80% (likely). Risk impact. 60 reusable software components were planned. If only 70 percent can be used, 18 components would have to be developed from scratch (in addition to other custom software that has been scheduled for development). Since the average component is 100 LOC and local data indicate that the software engineering cost for each LOC is $14.00, the overall cost (impact) to develop the components would be 18 x 100 x 14 = $25,200. Risk exposure. RE = 0.80 x 25,200 ~ $20,200.
39 Risk Mitigation, Monitoring,and Management mitigation—how can we avoid the risk? monitoring—what factors can we track that will enable us to determine if the risk is becoming more or less likely? management—what contingency plans do we have if the risk becomes a reality?
40 Risk Due to Product Size Attributes that affect risk: • estimated size of the product in LOC or FP? • estimated size of product in number of programs, files, transactions? • percentage deviation in size of product from average for previous products? • size of database created or used by the product? • number of users of the product? • number of projected changes to the requirements for the product? before delivery? after delivery? • amount of reused software?
41 Risk Due to Business Impact Attributes that affect risk: • affect of this product on company revenue? • visibility of this product by senior management? • reasonableness of delivery deadline? • number of customers who will use this product • interoperability constraints • sophistication of end users? • amount and quality of product documentation that must be produced and delivered to the customer? • governmental constraints • costs associated with late delivery? • costs associated with a defective product?
42 Risks Due to the Customer Questions that must be answered: • Have you worked with the customer in the past? • Does the customer have a solid idea of requirements? • Has the customer agreed to spend time with you? • Is the customer willing to participate in reviews? • Is the customer technically sophisticated? • Is the customer willing to let your people do their job—that is, will the customer resist looking over your shoulder during technically detailed work? • Does the customer understand the software engineering process?
43 Risks Due to Process Maturity Questions that must be answered: • Have you established a common process framework? • Is it followed by project teams? • Do you have management support for software engineering • Do you have a proactive approach to SQA? • Do you conduct formal technical reviews? • Are CASE tools used for analysis, design and testing? • Are the tools integrated with one another? • Have document formats been established?