Lecture 9c:Maintenance Systems
Respiratory SystemHow gases are exchanged with the outsideworld3 steps of Respiration:   1. Breathing   2. Internal exchan...
Respiratory SystemAs it moves from the nose to the lungs, air is:   1. Warmed   2. Filtered to be free of debris   3. Humi...
Upper Respiratory TractNasal cavities, pharynx and larynxNasal cavities are basically the nostrils and thepath to the mout...
Lower Respiratory TractTrachea- cartilage lined tube leading from thelarynx down to theBronchi- smaller tubes leading to t...
BreathingDuring inspiration, the diaphragm andmuscles around the ribs cause the volume ofthe thoracic cavity to increase, ...
Exchange of gases in thelungsSurface area of a humans lungs= 50 timesgreater than surface area of skinEach alveolus is sur...
Internal gas exchangeHemoglobin is the molecule in RBCs that carries O2- eachRBC can carry about 1 billion O2 molecules in...
Urinary SystemKidneys are organs that do the following:  1. Remove nitrogenous waste, either in  the from of urea or uric ...
Urinary SystemUrine produced by the kidneys flowsthrough theUreter, tubes leading to theBladder, which stores the urine un...
KidneysEveryone has 2 kidneysThree major parts of a kidney:   1. Renal cortex - the outer region   2. Renal medulla- cone ...
NephronsNephrons are where urine formation happens  1. Filtration - any small molecules in the  blood move into the nephro...
Digestive SystemThe tasks of the digestive system:  1. Ingest food  2. Break food down into particles that  can be absorbe...
Digestive SystemTube- within- a- tube plan- the innerspace of the digestive tract is separatedfrom the rest of the body- i...
Digestive SystemMouth- breaks food into small piecesTeeth- have different shapes depending on what iseaten   Carnivores ha...
Digestive SystemWhen it leaves the mouth, a food bolusgoes into the esophagusThe esophagus moves the food down tothe stoma...
Digestive SystemThe Stomach receives food from the esophagus,stores food, starts the digestion of proteins, andthen moves ...
Digestive SystemSmall Intestine- finishes breakdown of carbohydrates,proteins, fats, nucleic acids and absorbs the nutrien...
Digestive SystemThe wall of the small intestine is coveredby folds upon folds- villiEach villi is covered in cells that ha...
Digestive SystemLarge Intestine- continues absorption ofwater, salts and some nutrients, storesindigestible material until...
Accessory organs- PancreasPancreas secretes digestive juice into thesmall intestineAlso produces and secretes insulin into...
Accessory Organs- LiverLiver has many functions:   Removes toxins from the blood   Produces plasma proteins   Destroys old...
9c; maintenance systems
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  • 9c; maintenance systems

    1. 1. Lecture 9c:Maintenance Systems
    2. 2. Respiratory SystemHow gases are exchanged with the outsideworld3 steps of Respiration: 1. Breathing 2. Internal exchange of gases between air and blood in the lungs 3. Internal exchange of gases between blood and tissue fluid and therefore cells
    3. 3. Respiratory SystemAs it moves from the nose to the lungs, air is: 1. Warmed 2. Filtered to be free of debris 3. Humidified It is at body temp and saturated with water when it reaches the lungs As it moves out, it is cooled and loses much of its moisture
    4. 4. Upper Respiratory TractNasal cavities, pharynx and larynxNasal cavities are basically the nostrils and thepath to the mouth/ throatPharynx is the passageway from the mouth to thelarynxGlottis is the flap that covers the trachea when youswallow, to prevent chokingLarynx is the voicebox, a series of cartilage bandsthat vibrate when air is expelled past them
    5. 5. Lower Respiratory TractTrachea- cartilage lined tube leading from thelarynx down to theBronchi- smaller tubes leading to the left andright lungs, they continue to branch and getsmaller and smaller until they becomeBronchioles- the smallest passages, each endin a space surrounded byAlveioli- where the gas exchange occurs
    6. 6. BreathingDuring inspiration, the diaphragm andmuscles around the ribs cause the volume ofthe thoracic cavity to increase, drawing air inDuring expiration, the diaphragm and ribmuscles relax, and the lungs recoil, pushingair outWhen hydrogen and CO2 concentrations inthe blood rise, the breathing rate is increased
    7. 7. Exchange of gases in thelungsSurface area of a humans lungs= 50 timesgreater than surface area of skinEach alveolus is surrounded by a capillarynetwork CO2 is at higher concentration in the blood, O2 is at higher concentration in the air Simple diffusion causes CO2 to move out of the blood into the air, and O2 to move out of the air into the blood
    8. 8. Internal gas exchangeHemoglobin is the molecule in RBCs that carries O2- eachRBC can carry about 1 billion O2 molecules inside itThe O2 is released into the tissue fluid and thus the cellsbecause O2 concentration is lower than inside the RBC Warmer temps lower pH All these caused by cellular respirationSo there is a cycle and balance of chemicals between theblood and tissue fluid
    9. 9. Urinary SystemKidneys are organs that do the following: 1. Remove nitrogenous waste, either in the from of urea or uric acid, from the blood 2. Maintain the water- salt balance of the blood 3. Maintain the pH balance of the blood
    10. 10. Urinary SystemUrine produced by the kidneys flowsthrough theUreter, tubes leading to theBladder, which stores the urine until itis ready to be expelled. Then it flows outtheUrethra to be expelled from the body
    11. 11. KidneysEveryone has 2 kidneysThree major parts of a kidney: 1. Renal cortex - the outer region 2. Renal medulla- cone shaped renal pyramids 3. Renal pelvis- hollow central area where urine is collected before it goes to the bladder
    12. 12. NephronsNephrons are where urine formation happens 1. Filtration - any small molecules in the blood move into the nephron capsule 2. Reabsorption- nutrients and water return to the blood from the proximal tubule 3. Secretion- potentially harmful substances that are not filtered are moved into the distal tubule
    13. 13. Digestive SystemThe tasks of the digestive system: 1. Ingest food 2. Break food down into particles that can be absorbed (= cross plasma membranes) 3. Absorbs nutrients 4. Eliminates indegestibles
    14. 14. Digestive SystemTube- within- a- tube plan- the innerspace of the digestive tract is separatedfrom the rest of the body- in effect, it is‘outside’ the body Found in earthworms on up
    15. 15. Digestive SystemMouth- breaks food into small piecesTeeth- have different shapes depending on what iseaten Carnivores have pointy teeth Herbivores have teeth for grinding and crushing Omnivores have both typesSalivary glands- secrete saliva which startschemical digestion, lubricates and containsenzymes
    16. 16. Digestive SystemWhen it leaves the mouth, a food bolusgoes into the esophagusThe esophagus moves the food down tothe stomach by rhythmic smooth musclecontractions called peristalsis
    17. 17. Digestive SystemThe Stomach receives food from the esophagus,stores food, starts the digestion of proteins, andthen moves food on into the small intestine Produces HCl to make the pH= 2, helps to break down proteins and also kill bacteria and other pathogens Surrounded by muscles which mix the food and digestive juices
    18. 18. Digestive SystemSmall Intestine- finishes breakdown of carbohydrates,proteins, fats, nucleic acids and absorbs the nutrientsinto the body The liver produces bile which is sent into the sm. intestine - breaks up fats Pancreas produces pancreatic juice, which contains enzymes that help digestion of all sorts of chemicals Liver and pancreas are connected to the small intestine by ducts
    19. 19. Digestive SystemThe wall of the small intestine is coveredby folds upon folds- villiEach villi is covered in cells that havemicrovilli These folds increase surface area- which is needed for the contact of food and the cells so nutrients can move into the body
    20. 20. Digestive SystemLarge Intestine- continues absorption ofwater, salts and some nutrients, storesindigestible material until it is eliminatedContains LOTS of bacteria - help to breakdown nutrients but also produce VitaminK, necessary for clottingFeces- the final waste product, iseliminated from the anus
    21. 21. Accessory organs- PancreasPancreas secretes digestive juice into thesmall intestineAlso produces and secretes insulin intothe blood
    22. 22. Accessory Organs- LiverLiver has many functions: Removes toxins from the blood Produces plasma proteins Destroys old RBCs Produces bile Stores glucose as glycogen- then breaks glycogen down to return glucose to blood as needed to ensure constant level Produces urea

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