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  1. 1. International Reseach Journal,November,2010 ISSN-0975-3486 RNI: RAJBIL 2009/300097 VOL-I *ISSUE 14 76 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION Introduction On an average a female use up to 20 different beauty care or skincare products per day. This is partially interesting due to the fact that most of the these personal care products, makeup and skin care products are filled with chemical ingredients that can cause skin irritation, allergies, or even more serious health risks. These chemicals are absorbed through the skin result in various skin problems and aging issues. Some time vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor antioxidant status, impaired digestion and compromised immune functions are all reflected in a sallow complexion, lifeless hair and brittle or discolored nails. India women are in general pretty outstanding. There’s nothing quite as beautiful as a good-looking Indian woman. Beauty, confidence and expression are inherited quality of Indian women. Beauty employs confidence and confidence women always express her best. Beauty in general is all about taking proper care. Glowing and smooth skin add in the definition of beauty. We can achieve it from the nature. Indian women know that plant help her to enhance her beauty. Various literatures inform us on the use of herbs in beauty treatments during the ancient period. The women of the ancient world used the grounded leaves and seeds of herbs on their hair, face and over-all body they used to drank herbal tonics and applied oils obtained from herbs. Indian Ayurveda too has been promoting the use of herbs for skin and beauty for over 5000 years (Muhammed and Lakshmi). This starts right from our own empire ie. Kitchen. Our kitchen has most of the things that we are looking for. They are safe and help to yield satisfactory results without harming our skin. We can make a cleaning solution out of them. Mixture of these natural things provides a natural shining skin. Herbs can be used for beauty in original or processed form. They act against the internal impurities and external toxins of our body, add additional nutrients to it, make it glow and shine. Oral intake of antioxidants such as carotenoids, selenium, proanthocyanidins (found in grape seed extract, apples and other plant sources) and vitamin E is reported to reduce the risk of DNA damages by ultraviolet radiation that lead to skin aging and skin cancers (Kamal Dua, 2007). The herbal beauty care products were Research Paper 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567 November, 2010 USE OF PLANTS BY INDIAN WOMEN FOR ENHANCEMENTOFBEAUTY * Dr. Kavita Sharma, ** Dr. Sajal Deo ***Dr.Ayesha F. Rizvi *Asst Professor (Biotechnology), Rungta Education Campus, Raipur **Schooloflifesciences,MATSUniversity,RaipurArts&Comm.GirlsCollegeRaipur ProblemStatement:Asneverbeforemorewomenareinterestedintakingcareoftheirbeauty,andensuring that they maintain their youthful looks for as long as possible. Beauty brings confidence, self-assurance, poise and independence in a person. The skin care or personal care products we use every day may contain chemicals linked to infertility, birth defects, cancer and other health problems. Since our skin readily absorbs the products we use, it’s important to be aware of the possible dangers and use products that are safe. A total of 11 plants belonging to 11 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against skin diseases and as herbal care of their beauty. These plants are: (1) Termaric (2) Tulshi (3) Amla,), (3) Carrot (4) Cucumber, (5) Papaya (6) Potato (7) Sandalwood, (8) Nutmeg (9) Gram flour (10) Neem (11) Aloevera These plants are commonly exploited for beauty treatment process in homes and their cosmetics are also manufactured by industries. Natural beauty care or skin care embodies a trend to go back to the basics and give a good result. More women are realizing the harsh affects that chemical laden products can have on their skin and beauty. But skin cares done by the home made products are more effective, easily available, low-priced and don’t have any side effect on skin. A B S T R A C T Key words: Beauty, herbal care, therapeutic use, Nutmeg
  2. 2. International Reseach Journal,November,2010 ISSN-0975-3486 RNI: RAJBIL 2009/300097 VOL-I *ISSUE 14 77RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION prepared from various plant parts of single plant, or multiple plants. In several cases the pure herbal preparations was administered along with milk, ghee, honey, coconut oil, curd, etc (Abinash et al., 2006).The present paper deals with the eleven common plants belonging to eleven families used by the women of India for curing different skin ailments and for cosmetics. These plants are commonly exploited for beauty treatment process in homes and their cosmetics are also manufactured by industries. (1)Turmeric: (Common name: Haldi) Family: Zingiberaceae Activities of Turmeric include:Acompound called curcumin (the antioxidant pigment), is the yellow pigment in turmeric B . Turmeric are analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti- allergic, antioxidant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, appetizer, astringent, cardiovascular, carminative, cholagogue, digestive, diuretic, stimulant, and vulnerary(Somiaetal.,2005;Miqueletal.,2002).Soit is one of nature’s most powerful healers. Turmeric for Cosmetic: Turmeric has globally attractedforitscosmeticandtherapeuticuse.Itisskin- friendlyandconstitutesanimportantingredientofmany creams and lotions. Natural plant’s extracts used in cosmetic products marketed for skin care (Abinash et.al 2006). In the world, the biggest users of turmeric are in India. India is also major producer of turmeric. · Skin Care and Coloring: The skin is the main portion of the body and provides a shielding barrier againstharmfulchemicals,microbes,andultraviolet radiation. Turmeric has been formulated to heal and preventdryskin,treatskinconditionssuchaseczema and acne, and retard the aging process. Turmeric is used in many celebrations of Hindus. Especially in Hindu wedding brides would rub with turmeric on their bodies for glowing look. New born babies also rubbedwithturmericontheirforeheadforgoodluck. Traditionallywomenrubturmericontheircheeksto produceanaturalgoldenglow,extractofturmerichas been added to creams for use as a coloring agent. Washing in turmeric improves skin complexion and also reduces hair growth on body. Natural cleansers like milk with turmeric powder are effective natural cosmetics in themselves; it brings a healthy glow to the skin and makes them beautiful. They also help to restoreormaintainyouthbycontrollingwrinkleand creaseformationonthesurfaceoftheskin.Effectual healingpropertiesofturmerichavemadeitaccepted afteringredientincosmeticsanddrugs,astheleafoil of turmeric and extract can also be used as bio- pesticides and sunscreens. Turmeric is also very effective tonic and a blood purifier. · Hair Care: For the treatment of dandruff, and as hair colorants and dyes, plant extracts are used as hair growthstimulators,themechanismofactionappears tobeanaccelerationofbloodcirculationorincreased nutrition to the hair follicles. Natural dyes derived from plant extracts are being used in hair colorant products (2) Tulshi (Ocimum sanctum, Family: Lamiaceae) Benefits of Tulsi on Skin· Tulsi behave as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent thus helps in eradicating any of the microorganisms developing on the wound and the skin (Adhikary et.al, 2000). ·Tulsi is a wonderful blood purifier that helps in eradicating any toxins circulating in blood and helps us from any kind of foreign invasion therefore helps in protecting our skin from acne and other skin infectionsC . Tulshi is considered the best remedy for leucoderma and other skin disorders. · It helps in normalizing our digestive system thus helpful in treating cause by which dark circles are caused.(3) Amla (Indian gooseberry, Phyllanthus emblica,Family:Phyllanthaceae) Benefits ofAmla on Skin Amla has highest quantity of vitamin ‘C’ (ascorbic acid) in natural form which is one of the anti oxidant (Khopde et al., 2001). The fruit is used as a major constituent in several Ayurvedic preparations such as Chyavanprash and Rasayana which promotes healthandlongevity(Rajkumaretal.,2001;Poonamet al., 2009). Amla has been reported to posses expectorant, purgative, spasmolytic, antibacterial, hypoglycemic (Jamwal et al., 1959; Jayshri and Jolly, 1993), heaptoprotective and hypolipidemic (Thakur and Mandal, 2004) activity. Regular use of Amla promotes glow on skin and delays wrinkles or loosening of skin. Good results have been found in eczema.· Indian women generally useAmla to wash their hairs, which act as natural hair conditioner as it helps in providing good nourishment and also helps in normalizing blood supply C . Its internal use as well as its local application on scalp gives good results in hair loss as it provides nourishment to the skin on scalp. It stimulates hair follicles thus promoting hair growth and also improves texture of the hair. · It also prevents premature graying of hairs and dandruff, whichisflakingofdeadcellsofthescalp. ·It is helpful in making skin glow and works as an antioxidant therefore prevents wrinkles and loosening of skin.
  3. 3. International Reseach Journal,November,2010 ISSN-0975-3486 RNI: RAJBIL 2009/300097 VOL-I *ISSUE 14 78 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION (4) Carrot (Common name: Gajar, Daucus carota, Family:Apiaceae)Carrothasgotmultilevelbenefits for our body. They are very high in vitaminAand a source of vitamin C, folacin and potassium (Ogunlesi et al., 2010). Vitamin ‘C’also known as ascorbic acid is a water soluble antioxidant found to prevent tissue damage (Parviainen, 1995: Xu et al., 1996 and Romay et al. 1998). Antioxidants can prevent the chemical damage caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals that are generated by a variety of sources including pesticides, tobacco smoke, exhaust fumes, certain pollutants and organic solvents (Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1989: Davies, 1994; Robinson et al., 1997). Carrots can actually help to clear up skin problems. Carrot is used in skin as pack and drink as juice. (5) Cucumber (Common name: Khira, Cucumis sativus, Family: Cucurbitaceae) Its plant is a warm season annual plant cultivated for its fleshly fruit, eaten as a salad vegetable or used for pickling (TEA, 1980). Cucumber has been considered as one of the oldest cultivated vegetables onearth(Simons,1976).ItscultivationinwesternAsia dates to at least 3,000 years (McCollum, 1980). Cucumbercontainslacticacid,glycolicacidandsalicylic acid fiber, potassium and magnesium. These acids are known as organic or fruit acids because they contain oneormorecarboxylradicals(COOH)intheirstructure (McGrawHill Dictionary of Chemistry, 1984). Lactic and glycolic acid belong to a subdivision known as alpha hydroxyl acids while salicylic acid belongs to beta hydroxyl acid (Brannon, 2002). Another constituent of cucumber is ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), caffeic acid (Tindall, 1975) and 14a-methyl D- phytosterol (phytosterols) (Pollak, 1953). Alpha hydroxyl acids have been used as chemical exfoliants to promote the natural removal of dead cells and to keeptheprotectivesurfacelayershealthybydissolving thegluelikesubstanceintheepidermallayerthatcause a buildup of dead skin cell layer; leaving skin dehydrated, dull and coarse. It also possesses fungicidal properties and is used topically in the treatment of fungal skin infections such as tinea (Reynold, 1996). Cucumbers have very high water content of around 96% and are excellent body dehydrators (Simons, 1976) has a cooling and refreshing effect on body. (6)Papaya(Commonname:Papita, Caricapapaya, Family: Caricaceae) The papaya is full of vitamins. They have A, C, potassium in high amounts and also calcium, iron, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. It’s beneficial for skin care, repair, as cleanser, toner, softener and removal of wrinkle. We can use papaya to treat or eliminate old dead skin cells, dandruff and other skin disorders and even to reduce the signs of premature aging. Intake of papaya reduces the effect of stress and strain of modern life on skin. The antioxidants in papaya control premature ageing of the skin, thus imparting a youthful skin. Papain is the proteolytic enzymes. Cosmetically it acts as an exfoliative agent and removes dead cells. It is also used in some dentifrices, shampoos, and face-lifting preparations (Oloyede, 2005) (7) Potato (Common name: Aaloo, Solanum tuberosum, Family: Solanaceae) The potatoes are vegetables, known as “underground Apple”. Potato is not only a life of the nutrition food but can be an important alternative therapy for skin problems. · They relieve dark or puffy circles under eyes. · They also remove excess oil from face. · A grated raw potato can be used as a mask which helps in removing tanning and dead cells on face. (8) Sandalwood Plant (Common name: Chandan , Santalum album, Family: Santalaceae) Sandalwood oil is one of the oldest known perfume materials and is still used for incense and as a fragrance and fixative in soaps, cosmetics and perfumes. The main chemical constituents in Indian Sandalwood are “Santalol, Santyl acetate and Santalene” (Esoteric Oils, 2009).Alpha-santalol and beta-santalol amount to more than 90 % of the oil, beta-santalol being the most important character impact compound. The characteristic odor and medicinal properties of sandalwood oil are mainly due to the santalols. Sandalwood, a product of the tropical sandalwood tree that grows in India, is one of natures most versatile and effective skin-care treatments when made into a powder or oil. It is a key ingredient in many perfumes, incense and Ayurvedic skin-care treatments for scrapes, rashes, blemishes, acne, and more. Sandalwood can be used to treat many conditions such as: · Heal scrapes and cuts: Sandalwood has antimicrobial properties, making it a popular herbal antiseptic for treating minor skin abrasions
  4. 4. International Reseach Journal,November,2010 ISSN-0975-3486 RNI: RAJBIL 2009/300097 VOL-I *ISSUE 14 79RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION · Shrink pimples: Sandalwood can reduce random pimples overnight. ·Calm acne: Many believe sandalwood and rosewater can tamp down acne flare- ups on face, chest, shoulders, and back. · Sandalwood oil calms itchy, irritated skin all over body ·Dry skin becomes smooth with sandalwood oil: Sandalwood oil can be used as a moisturizer on the face and body, making it great for anti-ageing skincare - and the astringent action has a great toning effect and is also used with great results in oily skin conditions (Mojay, 2007). ·Banish bug bites with sandalwood: To fight the stinging and itchy swelling of an insect bite, apply a sandalwood pasterightaway.(9)Nutmeg(Commonname:Jaiphal, Myristica sp., Family: Myristicaceae) Nutmeg has aromatic, stimulant, narcotic, carminative, astringent, aphrodisiac, hypolipidemic, antithrombotic, anti-platelet aggregation, antifungal, antidysenteric, anti-inflammatory activities (Nadkarni 1998). The presence of two compounds, myristicin and elemicin, is often related to intoxication and to the hallucinogenic action of nutmeg while safrole has been suspected to be carcinogenic (Green, 1959; Shulgin, 1966; Harvey 1998). Oil of Nutmeg is used in perfumes and ointments. Nutmeg is commonly used for seasoning foods. Apparently nutmeg has anti-inflammatory properties and was used since ancient times for variety of skin diseases including ringworms and eczema. When added with honey which has antiseptic benefits and the concoction is supposed to help erase acne marks over time. (10)Gramflour(Commonname:Chanaatta,Cicer arietinum), Family: Fabaceae) Gram flour is a very important ingredient in Indian kitchens. We use it to make different dishes like snacks and sweets. It is very useful for skin care. A mixture of gram flour and rose water are good to use on face for spots. This mixture gives a clean and clear skin. Its mixture with milk improve complexion and make skin feel very smooth. In cold weather this mixture will help prevent the wrinkly look of the skin. (11) Neem (Azadirachta indica, Family: Meliaceae)Neem is a wonder herb and the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India (Kausik et al., 2002). Neem trees have many unique compounds that have been identified (Sankaram, 1987). The more common and the most analyzed compounds isolated from neem include nimbin has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activities; nimbidin as anti- bacterial, anti-ulcer (Pillai et al., 1978 and 1984) , analgesic, anti-arrhythmic, anti-fungal activity; nimbidol as antitubercular, anti-protozoan, anti- pyretic activity. Benefits of Neem on Skin · Since early times Neem is known for its wonderful properties and marvelous results on skin. It works as blood purifier and is very helpful in eradicating toxins from the blood that are supposed to cause harm to the skin. ·Local application of Neem powder or Neem oil has miraculous results. It is a famous anti microbial herb;itrendersallthemicroorganismsinactivetherefore helping in proper healing of wound without causing any infections and septic conditions. Tropical application and internal use of neem makes us relieved from eczema and even ringworms. Good results have been seen on skin problems like acne and blemishes. It helps in disinfecting the hair follicles and helps in eradicating the particle which is the main culprit in blocking the pore.·Neem helps in early healing of burns and injuries that might also helps in fading of scars that are left after the any injury. ·Neem is very helpful in providing internal glow to the skin by providing natural supplements that are required for good and healthy skin. · Neem is extensively used in hair fall and early graying of hairs with very satisfying results. ·It also finds its application in dandruff and in lice growth. ·Neem is helpful in lighting dark circles which are usually caused due to life style disturbances. Conclusion: Good skin care is essential if you want to look young and keep your skin glowing and wrinkle free the natural way without botox and plastic surgery or cosmetics that are loaded with chemicals. It is best to go the natural care route if you are serious about skin care because: Our skin cannot differentiate between good and bad chemicals. It indiscriminately absorbs whatever chemicals we slather on our face and body, causes adverse effect on our body. More women are realizing the harsh affects that chemical laden products can have on their skin. They want to see
  5. 5. International Reseach Journal,November,2010 ISSN-0975-3486 RNI: RAJBIL 2009/300097 VOL-I *ISSUE 14 80 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION results, but the side effects often cause worse problems than what they are trying to cure. Natural skin care embodies a trend to go back to the basics. By choosing eco-friendly, natural body or skin care products, we know that our skin is absorbing products rooted in nature and simply 1. Muhammed Majeed and Lakshmi Prakash, Cosmeceuticals: A Revolution in the making, Sabinsa Corporation, USA. 2. Kamal Dua, 2007. The Cosmetic World: A New Substrate for Pharmaceuticals, Pharmainfo.net, Vol. 5, Issue 2.3.Abinash Pratim Saikia, Venkat Kishore Ryakala, Pragya Sharma, Pranab Goswami and Utpal Bora, 2006. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Assamese people for various skin ailments and cosmetics, Journal of Enthnopharmacology, Volume 106, Issue 30, June 2006, Pages 149-157.4.Somia Khattak, Saeed-ur-Rehman, Hamid Ullah Shah, Waqar Ahmad and Manzoor Ahmad, (2005), Biological effects of indigenous medicinal plants Curcuma longa and Alpinia galangal, Fitoterapia, Vol 76, issue 2, March 2005, Pages 254-257. 5.Miquel J., A. Bernd, J. M. Sempere, J. Díaz-Alperiand A. Ramírez, The curcuma antioxidants: pharmacological effects and prospects for future clinical use. A review, (2002), Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Vol 34, Issue 1, February 2002, Pages 37-46.6.Adhikary, N., Mohanty, I., Joshi, S., Vajpayee, R. B. and Gupta, S. K., 2000. Ocimum Sanctum: An Indigenous Plant with Anticataract Potential, Indian Journal of Pharmacology; 32: 132-175.7.Khopde S. M., K. Indira Priyadarsini, H. Mohan, V. B. Gawandi, J. G. Satav, J. V. Yakhmi, M. M. Banavaliker, M. K. Biyani and J. P. Mittal, 2001. Characterizing the antioxidant activity of amla (Phyllanthus emblica) extract, Current Science, Vol. 81, No. 2,pp, 185-190, 25 July 2001.8.Rajkumar N.V., Theres M, Kuttan R., 2001. Emblica officinalis fruits afford protection against experimental gastric ulcers in rats. Pharmaceut. Biol., 39 (5):375-380.9.Poonam Mishra, Vijeyta Srivastava1, Deepmala Verma1, O. P. Chauhan2 and G. K. Rai1, 2009. Physico-chemical properties of Chakiya variety of Amla (Emblica officinalis) and effect of different dehydration methods on quality of powder, African Journal of Food Science Vol. 3(10) pp. 303-306, October, 2009 10.Jamwal, K. S., Sharma, I.P. and Chopra, L., 1959. Pharmacological investigations on the fruits of Emblica Officinalis. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 18c: 180-181.11.Jayshri, S. and Jolly, C. I., 1993. Phytochemical antibacterial and pharmacological investigations on Monordica chiranlia and Emblica officinalis. Ind. J. Pharm. Sci. 1: 6-13.12.Thakur, C.P. and Mandal, K., 1984. Effect of Emblica officinalis on cholesterol induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Ind. J. Med. Res. 79:142-146. 13.Ogunlesi, M., W. Okiei, L. Azeez, V. Obakachi, M. Osunsanmi, G. Nkenchor, 2010. Vitamin C Contents of Tropical Vegetables and Foods Determined by Voltammetric and Titrimetric Methods and Their Relevance to the Medicinal Uses of the Plants, International Journal of ELECTROCHEMICAL SCIENCE, 5 (2010) 105 - 115 R E F E R E N C E prepared by hand, within the highest quality with the least chemical processes. We can also be assured that no product will introduce a rash, irritation or allergic reaction because its ingredients are pure and natural. And that is best thing we can do for ourselves.