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Managing Groups & Teams

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An insight on groups and team building.

An insight on groups and team building.

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  • 1. Managing Groups and Teams Chapter 12 Ready Notes For in-class note taking, choose Handouts or Notes Pages from the print options, with three slides per page.
  • 2. Chapter Objectives
    • Define the term group , and explain the significance of cohesiveness, roles, norms, and ostracism in regard to the behavior of group members.
    • Identify and briefly describe the six stages of group development.
    • Summarize the relevant research insights about organizational politics, and explain how groupthink can lead to blind conformity.
    • Define and discuss the management of virtual teams .
  • 3. Chapter Objectives (cont’d)
    • Discuss the criteria and determinants of team effectiveness.
    • Explain why trust is a key ingredient of teamwork and discuss what management can do to build trust.
  • 4. Fundamental Group Dynamics
    • What Is a Group?
      • Two or more freely interacting individuals who share a common identity and purpose.
    • Types of Groups
      • Informal groups: a collection of people seeking friendship and acceptance that satisfies esteem needs.
      • Formal groups: a collection of people created to do something productive that contributes to the success of the larger organization.
  • 5. Figure 12.1 What Does It Take to Make a Group?
  • 6. Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d)
    • Attraction to Groups
      • Attractiveness of the group
      • Cohesiveness of the group
    • Roles
      • Socially determined ways of behaving in a specific position.
        • A set of expectations concerning what a person must, must not, or may do in a position.
        • The actual behavior of a person who occupies the position.
  • 7. Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d)
    • Norms
      • The standards (degrees of acceptability and unacceptability) for conduct that help individuals judge what is right or good or bad in a given social setting.
        • Are culturally derived and vary from one culture to another.
        • Are usually unwritten, yet have a strong influence on individual behavior.
        • May go above and beyond formal rules and written policies.
  • 8. Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d)
    • Reasons that groups enforce norms
      • To facilitate the survival of the group.
      • To simplify or clarify role expectations.
      • To help group members avoid embarrassing situations.
      • To express key group values and enhance the group’s unique identity.
    • Ostracism
      • Rejection by the group for violation of its norms.
  • 9. Group Development
    • Characteristics of a Mature Group
      • Members are aware of each other’s assets and liabilities.
      • Individual differences are accepted.
      • The group’s authority and interpersonal relationships are recognized.
      • Group decisions are made through rational discussion.
      • Conflict is over group issues, not emotional issues.
      • Members are aware of the group’s processes and their own roles in them.
  • 10. Six Stages of Group Development
    • Stage 1: Orientation
      • Uncertainty about most everything is high.
    • Stage 2: Conflict and change
      • Subgroups struggle for control; roles are undefined.
    • Stage 3: Cohesion
      • Consensus on leadership, structure, and procedures is reached.
    • Stage 4: Delusion
      • Members misperceive that the group has reached maturity.
  • 11. Six Stages of Group Development (cont’d)
    • Stage 5: Disillusion
      • Subgroups form; disenchantment, diminished cohesiveness and commitment to the group.
    • Stage 6: Acceptance
      • A trusted and influential group member steps forward and moves the group from conflict to cohesion so that it becomes highly effective and efficient.
      • Member expectations are more realistic.
  • 12. Organizational Politics
    • What Does Organizational Politics Involve?
      • The pursuit of self-interest at work in the face of real or imagined opposition.
        • Impression management: trying to influence how others perceive you.
      • Political infighting is a primary impediment that slows down change in organizations.
        • Political maneuvering: all self-serving behavior above and beyond competence, hard work, and luck.
  • 13. Organizational Politics (cont’d)
    • Positive Effects
      • Exchanging favors
      • “ Touching bases”
      • Forming coalitions
      • Seeking sponsors
      • Overcoming internal barriers
    • Negative Effects
      • Hinders organizational and individual effectiveness.
      • Is an irritant to employees.
      • Can have significant ethical implications.
  • 14. Organizational Politics (cont’d)
    • Research on Organizational Politics
      • The perception that the higher the level of management, the greater amount of politics.
      • The larger the organization, the greater the politics.
      • Staff personnel are more political than line managers.
      • Marketing people are the most political; production people were considered the least political.
      • 61% of employees believed organizational politics helps advance one’s career.
      • 45% of employees believed that organizational politics detracts from organizational goals.
  • 15. Organizational Politics (cont’d)
    • Political Tactics
      • Posturing: “One upmanship” and taking credit for others work.
      • Empire building: gaining control over human and material resources.
      • Making the supervisor look good: engaging in “apple polishing.”
      • Collecting and using social IOUs: exchanging reciprocal political favors by making someone look good or covering up their mistakes.
  • 16. Organizational Politics (cont’d)
    • Political Tactics
      • Creating power and loyalty cliques: facing superiors as a cohesive group rather than alone.
      • Engaging in destructive competition: sabotaging the work of others through character assassination.
  • 17. Organizational Politics (cont’d)
    • Antidotes to Political Behavior
      • Strive for a climate of openness and trust.
      • Measure performance results rather than personalities.
      • Encourage top management to refrain from political behaviors.
      • Strive to integrate individual and organizational goals through meaningful work and career planning.
      • Practice job rotation to encourage broader perspectives and understanding of the problems of others.
  • 18. Groupthink
    • Groupthink (Irving Janis)
      • A mode of thinking (blind conformity) that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.
    • Symptoms of Groupthink
      • Excessive optimism
      • An assumption of inherent morality
      • Suppression of dissent
      • A desperate quest for unanimity
  • 19. Groupthink (cont’d)
    • Preventing Groupthink
      • Avoid using of groups as rubberstamps.
      • Urge each group member to think independently.
      • Bring in outside experts for fresh perspectives.
      • Assign someone the role of devil’s advocate.
      • Take time to consider possible effects and consequences of alternative courses of action.
  • 20. Team, Teamwork, and Trust
    • Cross-Functional Teams
      • Task groups staffed with a mix of specialists from various organizational areas who are focused on a common objective.
        • May or may not be self-managed.
        • Membership is assigned, not voluntary.
        • Challenge is getting specialists to be boundary spanners.
  • 21. Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d)
    • Virtual Teams
      • Task groups with members who are physically dispersed yet linked electronically to accomplish a common goal.
        • Face-to-face contact is minimal or nonexistent.
        • Primary forms of communication are electronic interchanges (e-mail, voice mail, web-based project software, and videoconferences).
  • 22. Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d)
    • Building a Virtual Team
      • Identify the team’s sponsors, stakeholders, and champions.
      • Develop a team charter that includes its purpose, mission, and goals.
      • Select team members.
      • Contact team members and introduce them to each other.
      • Conduct a team orientation session.
      • Develop a team process.
  • 23. Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d)
    • What Makes Workplace Teams Effective?
      • Innovative ideas
      • Goals accomplished
      • Adaptability to change
      • High person/team commitment
      • Being rated highly by upper management
  • 24. Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d)
    • Trust: A Key to Team Effectiveness
      • Trust: a belief in the integrity, character, or ability of others.
        • The primary responsibility for creating a climate of trust falls on the manager.
        • Trust is the key to establishing productive interpersonal relationships.
        • Trust encourages self-control, reduces the need for direct supervision, and expands managerial control.
  • 25. Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d)
    • Six Ways to Build Trust
      • Communication: keep people informed.
      • Support: be an approachable person.
      • Respect: delegate important duties and listen.
      • Fairness: evaluate fairly and objectively.
      • Predictability: be dependable and consistent.
      • Competence: be a good role model.