Communicating For Results


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Better results are achieved through better communication.An analysis on effective communication.

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Communicating For Results

  1. 1. Communicating for Results Chapter 10 Ready Notes For in-class note taking, choose Handouts or Notes Pages from the print options, with three slides per page.
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Identify each major link in the communication process, and explain the concept of media richness. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the five communication strategies and specify guidelines for using them. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss why it is important for managers to know about grapevine and nonverbal communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain ways in which management can encourage upward communication. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Objectives (cont’d) <ul><li>List two practical tips for each of the three modern communication technologies (e-mail, cell phones, and videoconferences), and summarize the pros and cons of telecommuting. </li></ul><ul><li>List at least three practical tips for improving each of the following communication skills: listening, writing, and running a meeting. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Importance of Communications <ul><li>Effective communications help individuals to understand and pursue organizational objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational communications cover every management function. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational culture depends on communications. </li></ul><ul><li>Communications improve both organizational and individual performance. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Communication Process <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The interpersonal transfer of information and understanding from one person to another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A linked social process of sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, and feedback. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Figure 10.1 The Basic Communication Process
  7. 7. The Communication Process (cont’d) <ul><li>Encoding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translating internal thought patterns into a language or code the intended receiver of the message will likely understand and/or pay attention to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choice of words, gestures, or other symbols for encoding depends on the nature of the message. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical or nontechnical </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional or factual </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual or auditory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural diversity can create encoding challenges. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Communication Process (cont’d) <ul><li>Selecting a Medium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face-to-face conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memorandums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulletin boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational publications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>News releases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Press conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Communication Process (cont’d) <ul><li>Media Selection in Cross-Cultural Settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving between low- and high-context cultures can create appropriate media selection problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In low-context cultures, the verbal content of the message is more important than the medium through which it is delivered. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In high-context cultures, the context (setting) in which the message is delivered is more important than the literal words of the message. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. A Contingency Approach (Lengel and Daft) <ul><li>Media richness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A given medium’s capacity to convey information and promote learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of rich mediums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide simultaneous multiple information cues. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate immediate feedback. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have a personal focus. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of lean mediums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convey limited information (few cues). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide no immediate feedback. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are impersonal. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Communication Process (cont’d) <ul><li>Decoding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful decoding depends on the receiver having </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a willingness to receive the message. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge of the language and terminology used in the message. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>an understanding of the sender’s purpose and background situation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Communication Process (cont’d) <ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The choice factors for the form to provide feedback are the same factors governing the encoding process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback affects the form and content of follow-up communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective feedback is timely, relevant, and personal. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Communication Process (cont’d) <ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise: any interference with the normal flow of communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding decreases as noise increases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing with noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make messages more understandable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize and neutralize sources of interference. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Dynamics of Organizational Communication <ul><li>Communication Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spray & Pray </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impersonal and one-way communications (lectures). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell & Sell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A restricted set of messages with explanations for their importance and relevance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underscore & Explore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information and issues that are keys to organizational success are discussed and explained. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Dynamics of Organizational Communication (cont’d) <ul><li>Communication Strategies (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify & Reply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responding to employee concerns about prior organizational communications. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withhold & Uphold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telling employees only what they need to know when you think they need to know it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Dynamics of Organizational Communication (cont’d) <ul><li>Seeking a Middle-Ground (Communication Strategy) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Spray & Pray and Withhold & Uphold. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Tell & Sell and Identify & Reply sparingly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Underscore & Explore as much as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Merging Communication Strategies and Media Richness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers need to select the richest medium possible when employing Tell & Sell, Identify & Reply, and Underscore & Explore strategies. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Dynamics of Organizational Communication (cont’d) <ul><li>The Grapevine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The unofficial and informal communication system in an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managerial Attitudes Toward the Grapevine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers have predominately negative feelings about the grapevine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The grapevine is more prevalent at lower-levels of the managerial hierarchy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The grapevine appears to be more influential in larger organizations. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Dynamics of Organizational Communication (cont’d) <ul><li>Coping with the Grapevine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers can keep abreast of grapevine communications by regularly conversing with known gatekeepers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The grapevine cannot be extinguished; attempts to stifle the grapevine as likely to stimulate it instead. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and officially correcting grapevine information is perhaps the best strategy for coping with the grapevine. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Body Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal communication based on facial expressions, posture, and appearance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Body Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postural </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Receiving Nonverbal Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of nonverbal cues can give insight into deep-seated emotions. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Nonverbal Communication (cont’d) <ul><li>Giving Nonverbal Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal feedback from authority figures significantly affects employee behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smiles, positive head nods, and eye contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frowns, head shaking, and avoiding eye contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive feedback builds good interpersonal relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitivity and cross-cultural training can reduce nonverbal errors when working with individuals from other cultures. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Upward Communication <ul><li>Upward Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of encouraging employees to share their feelings and ideas with management. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Options for Improving Upward Communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal grievance procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee attitude and opinion surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestion systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-door policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet chat rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exit interviews </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Communicating in the Online Workplace <ul><li>Getting a Handle on E-mail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put short messages in the subject line. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sparing with graphics and attachments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never assume privacy with company e-mail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workplace e-mail is for business only. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typing in ALL CAPS is considered shouting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use bullet lists for brevity and clarity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform recipients when no reply is needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Save only e-mail that is likely to be needed again. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always include your name in the message. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Hello! Can We Talk? <ul><li>Cellular Telephones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: mobility and convenience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: distracted drivers and disturbing calls in public places, and the risk of disclosing private information. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Communicating in the Online Workplace (cont’d) <ul><li>Video Conferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A live television exchange between people in different locations that reduces costly and possibly dangerous travel time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video conferencing tips: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test the system and the seating setup beforehand. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dress for the occasion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce everyone. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speak loudly and clearly. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep background noises to a minimum. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Communicating in the Online Workplace (cont’d) <ul><li>Telecommuting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sending work to and from one’s office via a computer modem while working at home. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The key to successful telecommuting is selecting the jobs and the employees best suited for working away from the office. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Becoming a Better Communicator <ul><li>Effective Listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerate silence; keep listening. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask stimulating, open-ended questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage the speaker with attentive eye contact, alert posture, and verbal encouragers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrase what you have just heard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show emotion to show your sympathy with speaker. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know your biases and prejudices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid premature judgments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize by reiterating what the speaker said. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Becoming a Better Communicator (cont’d) <ul><li>Effective Writing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective writing is the product of regular practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep words simple. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t sacrifice communication to rules of composition. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Write concisely. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be specific. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Becoming a Better Communicator (cont’d) <ul><li>Running Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare ahead of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a reason for the meeting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute an agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give participants at least a day’s notice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit attendance and designate a leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a specific start and end time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage participation but keep to the agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use visual aids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow up. </li></ul></ul>