Influencing & Leading


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A guide for effective leadership.

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Influencing & Leading

  1. 1. Influencing and Leading Chapter 13 Ready Notes For in-class note taking, choose Handouts or Notes Pages from the print options, with three slides per page.
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Identify and describe eight generic influence tactics used in modern organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the five bases of power and explain what it takes to make empowerment work. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the concept of emotional intelligence in terms of Goleman’s four leadership traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize what the Ohio State model and the Leadership Grid® have taught managers about leadership. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Objectives (cont’d) <ul><li>Describe the path-goal theory of leadership, and explain how the assumption on which it is based differs from the assumptions on which Fiedler’s contingency theory is based. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the two key functions that mentors perform, and explain how a mentor can develop a junior manager’s leadership skills. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Influence Tactics in the Workplace <ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any attempt by a person to change the behavior of superiors, peers, or lower-level employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is not inherently good or bad. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used for purely selfish reasons. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to subvert organizational objectives. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to enhance organizational effectiveness. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender appears to play no significant role in the choice of influence tactic. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Influence Tactics in the Workplace (cont’d) <ul><li>Eight Generic Influence Tactics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational persuasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspirational appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingratiating tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalition tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upward appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange tactics </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Power <ul><li>What Is Power? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to marshal the human, informational, and material resources to get something done. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power affects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Power (cont’d) <ul><li>What Is Power? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power over: the ability to dominate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power to: ability to act freely. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power from: ability to resist the demands of others. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Power (cont’d) <ul><li>Five Bases of Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward power: having the ability to grant rewards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive power: gaining compliance through threats or punishment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate power: gaining compliance based on the power associated with holding a superior position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referent power: gaining compliance based on charisma or personal identification. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert power: gaining compliance based on the ability to dispense valued information. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Power (cont’d) <ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making employees full partners in the decision-making process and giving them the necessary tools and rewards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power is viewed as an unlimited resource. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional authoritarian managers feel threatened. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threats to empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dishonesty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Untrustworthiness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selfishness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Leadership <ul><li>Leadership Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of inspiring, influencing, and guiding others to participate in a common effort. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of influencing relevant others to pursue official organizational objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informal Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of influencing other to pursue unofficial objectives that may or may not serve the organization’s interests. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Figure 13.1 The Evolution of Leadership Theory
  12. 12. Leadership (cont’d) <ul><li>Trait Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The search for universal traits possessed by all leaders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An early review 100 trait studies found moderate agreement on five traits common to leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scholarship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dependability in exercising responsibilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity and social participation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic status </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Leadership (cont’d) <ul><li>A Modern Trait Profile: Leaders with Emotional Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Intelligence (EI): the ability to monitor and control one’s emotions and behavior in complex social settings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership traits associated with EI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship management </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Leadership (cont’d) <ul><li>The Controversy Over Male and Female Leadership Traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosener’s research: Female leaders are better at sharing power and information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Later research found no significant differences in the leadership styles of men and women. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women did not fit the female stereotype. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men did not fit the male stereotype. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Leadership (cont’d) <ul><li>Behavioral Styles Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWII studies of the patterns of leader behaviors (leadership styles) rather than who the leader was (traits). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire (hands-off style) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Behavioral Styles Theories of Leadership <ul><li>The Ohio State Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating structure: leader’s efforts to get things organized and get things done. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration: the degree of trust, friendship, respect, and warmth that the leader extended to subordinates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified four leadership styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low structure, high consideration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High structure, high consideration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low structure, low consideration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High structure, low consideration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Behavioral Styles Theories of Leadership (cont’d) <ul><li>The Leadership Grid® </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The belief that there is one best style of leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concern for production: the desire to achieve greater output, cost-effectiveness, and profits. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concern for people: promoting friendships, helping coworkers get the job done, and attending to things that matter to people. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Behavioral Styles Theories of Leadership (cont’d) <ul><li>The Leadership Grid® Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9, 1 style: primary concern for production; people secondary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1, 9 style: primary concern for people; production secondary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1, 1 style: minimal concern for production or people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5, 5 style: moderate concern for both production and people to maintain the status quo. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9, 9 style: high concern for both production and people (commitment, trust, and teamwork) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Situational Theories of Leadership <ul><li>Fiedler’s Contingency Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance of the leader depends on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the degree to which the situation gives the leader control and influence ( favorableness of the situation ). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the leader’s basic motivation to either accomplish the task or having supportive relationships with others ( task or relationship motivation ). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The challenge is to match the leader with a suitable situation: easier to move the leader than to change the leader’s style. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Situational Theories of Leadership (cont’d) <ul><li>Path-Goal Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from expectancy motivation theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective leaders enhance employee motivation by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clarifying perceptions of work goals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>linking rewards to goal attainment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>explaining how goals and rewards can be achieved. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directive  Supportive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participative  Achievement-oriented </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Transformational Leadership Theory <ul><li>Transformational leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are capable of charting new courses for their organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are visionaries who challenge people to do exceptional things, above and beyond the plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transactional leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor people to see that they do the expected, according to plan in order to maintain the status quo. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get people to do things by offering a reward or threatening them with a punishment. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Servant Leaders: Putting to Work What You’ve Learned <ul><li>The Servant Leader (Greenleaf) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ethical person who put others—not herself or himself—in the foreground. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are servants first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inspire trust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are masters of feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize personal development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Articulate goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know how to listen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on foresight </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Mentoring <ul><li>Learning from a Mentor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentor: someone who develops another person through tutoring, coaching, and guidance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamics of Mentoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentoring’s key functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serving as a career enhancement function. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing psychological support. </li></ul></ul></ul>