Role Play

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    Could you pls clarify on the term Focal Role pls?
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Role Play

  1. 1. Role Analysis
  2. 2. Meaning of Role Analysis <ul><li>Role analysis is a process of analyzing the role of a manager in relation to the roles of other managers or members of the organization who get affected by his performance. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition <ul><li>P. N. Singh, “Role analysis is a participatory process which aims at defining the work content of a role in relation to all those with whom the role occupant has significant interaction in the performance of his jobs.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Process of Role Analysis Focal Role Role Set Members Expectations & Contributions Discussion Role Consensus Key Performance Areas Critical Attributes
  5. 5. Focal Role <ul><li>Identification of Key Position </li></ul><ul><li>The first step is to identify focal role. The focal role is the manager whose role is to be analyzed. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Identification of Role Set Members <ul><li>The next step is to identify the role set members. The role set members are the various members in the department or organization with whom the focal role has to interact to accomplish goals. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Listing out Expectations and Contributions <ul><li>The Focal Role (Role Holder) has to write down his expectations from and his contributions to the Role Set Members. </li></ul><ul><li>The Role Set Members also have to write down their expectations from and contributions to the Focal Role. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Discussion <ul><li>The focal role and role set members hold discussion. In this discussion, they compare the two lists of expectations and contributions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Role Consensus <ul><li>The discussion leads to role consensus which the focal role needs to undertake. The role consensus is arrived only after a good discussion on the expectations and contributions are stated in the two lists. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Identification of Key Performance Areas <ul><li>The group i.e. focal role and the role set members identifies ‘key performance areas’ in which the focal role needs to concentrate. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Identification of Critical Attributes <ul><li>The role set members may be asked to indicate the critical attributes in the areas of knowledge, attitude, skills and behaviour required for the focal role. Such critical attributes enable the focal role to perform his role effectively. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Review of Performance <ul><li>The performance of the focal role is reviewed either by the superior of the focal role or by the role set members or any other appraising authority. Necessary feedback is provided to the focal role so that he can correct his weaknesses and consolidate his strengths. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Uses, Applications and Advantages of Role Analysis <ul><li>Role clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of main functions </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Setting goals </li></ul><ul><li>Placements </li></ul><ul><li>Performance appraisal </li></ul>
  14. 14. Uses, Applications and Advantages of Role Analysis <ul><li>Training needs </li></ul><ul><li>Team work </li></ul><ul><li>Second line executives </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Career Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul>
  15. 15. Distinguish between Job Analysis and Role Analysis
  16. 16. Meaning <ul><li>Job Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>It is systematic collection and studying information relating to operations and responsibilities of a specific job. </li></ul><ul><li>Role Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>It is participatory process, which aims at defining the role content in relation to all those roles of Role Set Members. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Suitability <ul><li>Job Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Operative jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Role Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial jobs </li></ul>
  18. 18. Who conducts? <ul><li>Job Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Job Analyst who occupies advisory position </li></ul><ul><li>Role Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction between the Focal Role and the Role Set Members </li></ul>
  19. 19. Frequency <ul><li>Job Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Not very frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Role Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>More frequently </li></ul>
  20. 20. Information <ul><li>Job Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Job Description </li></ul><ul><li>Job Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Role Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Key Performance Areas of the Focal Role </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Attributes of the Focal Role </li></ul>
  21. 21. Type of concept <ul><li>Old concept </li></ul><ul><li>New Concept </li></ul>
  22. 22. Career Planning
  23. 23. Meaning of term Career <ul><li>It denotes all the jobs that are held during one’s working life. </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of a series of properly sequenced role experiences leading to an increasing level of responsibility, status, power and rewards. </li></ul><ul><li>It represents an organized path taken by an individual across time and space. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Career Related Terms <ul><li>Career Goals: The future positions one strives to reach as part of a career. </li></ul><ul><li>Career Path: The sequential pattern of jobs that form a career. </li></ul><ul><li>Career Progression: Making progress in one’s career through promotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Career Counselling: Guiding and advising people on their possible career paths and what they must do to achieve promotions. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Career Related Terms <ul><li>Mentoring: The process wherein an executive or senior employee serves as a guide, friend, philosopher and confidante to the new entrant. </li></ul><ul><li>Career Anchor: The basic drives that give the urge to take up a certain type of career. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Career Anchor (Drives) <ul><li>Technical Competence – continuous learning and updating one’s expertise in a technical or specialized area such as quality control, advertising, public relations etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial Competence – opportunities for higher responsibility, decision-making, control and influences over others. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Career Anchor (Drives) <ul><li>Security and stability of career. </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy and independence of action. </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity, innovation and risk-taking. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Concept of career Planning <ul><li>Career Planning the systematic process by which one selects career goals and the path to these goals. </li></ul><ul><li>From the organization’s viewpoint it means helping the employees to plan their career in terms of their capacities within the context of organization’s needs. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Concept of career Planning <ul><li>It involves designing an organizational system of career movement and growth opportunities for employees from the employment stage to the retirement stage. </li></ul><ul><li>It is managerial technique for mapping out the entire career of young employees. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Career Plan for MBA Graduate <ul><li>Management trainee 22 </li></ul><ul><li>Asst. Manager 25 </li></ul><ul><li>Deputy Manager 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Manager 35 </li></ul><ul><li>Deputy General Manager 40 </li></ul><ul><li>General Manager 45 </li></ul>
  31. 31. Features of Career Planning <ul><li>It is a process of developing human resources rather than an event. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a continuous process due to an ever changing environment. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not an end in itself but a means of managing people to obtain results. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Features of Career Planning <ul><li>It is the responsibility of an organization to provide guidance and counseling to its employees in planning their careers and in developing and utilizing their knowledge and skills. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic aim is integration of individual and organizational needs. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Objectives of Career Planning <ul><li>To attract and retain the right type of persons in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>To map out careers of various categories of employees suitable to their ability and willingness </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure better use of human resources through more satisfied and productive employees. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Objectives of Career Planning <ul><li>To have a stable workforce by reducing turnover and absenteeism. </li></ul><ul><li>To increase the utilization of managerial reserves within an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>To improve motivation and morale of employees. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Relation between Career Planning and Manpower Planning <ul><li>Manpower Planning provides an inventory of skills and potentials available within an organization. But Career Planning determines who (on the basis of Performance and Potential) could be groomed for higher level assignments, where, when and how (i.e. after what kind of training). </li></ul>
  36. 36. Relation between Career Planning and Manpower Planning <ul><li>Manpower Planning provides information about the human resources available within the organization for expansion, growth and technological innovations. But Career Planning only tells as to who could succeed in case of retirement, death, resignation, etc. of existing personnel. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Manpower Planning provides following information for Career Planning <ul><li>Inventory of Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Manpower needs in terms of number, type, skills, levels and time </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in functions and activities, two, five or ten years hence.. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature and extent of behavioral changes required to meet manpower needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of human resources within and outside the organization, training opportunities, training resources and training time. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Succession Planning <ul><li>A Succession Plan is to fill key positions over time. </li></ul><ul><li>It is essential for the survival and success of an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of Succession Planning is to identify and develop people to replace current incumbents in key positions in cases of resignation, retirement, growth etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Succession can be from within or from outside the organization. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Relation between Career Planning and Succession Planning <ul><li>Career Planning and Succession Planning appear to be similar but not synonymous. </li></ul><ul><li>Career Planning covers all levels of employees whereas Succession Planning is generally required for higher level of executives. </li></ul><ul><li>Succession Plan involves identification of vacancies that are likely to occur in the higher levels and locating the probable successors. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Relation between Career Planning and Succession Planning <ul><li>Succession Planning facilitates continuity of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Career Planning may consist of charts showing the career paths of different categories of employees showing how they can advance up in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Succession Plan consists of a runner up chart or succession chart for a particular position such as General Manager. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Steps in Career Planning <ul><li>Preparation of Personnel Inventory – status, duties, qualifications, age, aptitude, ability and acceptability (surplus or shortage) </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying Career Needs – (HR Manager may assist) </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying career Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Matching of Employee’s Aspirations with Career Opportunities </li></ul>
  42. 42. Steps in Career Planning <ul><li>Formulating and Implementing Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the career systems by creating new career paths </li></ul><ul><li>Changing employee needs and aspirations – to help scale down unrealistic goals and/or creating new aspirations </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking new basis of integration through problem solving, negotiations and compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Training and development to meet individual and organizational needs </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing career Plans </li></ul>
  43. 43. Advantages of Career Planning <ul><li>Knowledge of various career opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to select the career which is suitable to his life style, preference, family environment and self development </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to identify talented employees </li></ul><ul><li>Internal promotion, up gradation and transfers boost up motivation and morale </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers employee turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Improves employees’ performance </li></ul>
  44. 44. Limitation of Career Planning <ul><li>Not suitable for small organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Not suitable for unskilled and semi-skilled jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Long term planning not feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Political intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Some careers do not have much scope for advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Technological and economic factors may lead to declining stage to some career </li></ul>
  45. 45. Requirements of Effective career Planning <ul><li>Top management support </li></ul><ul><li>Growth and expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Clear goals </li></ul><ul><li>Proper selection </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated and hardworking staff </li></ul><ul><li>Proper age balance </li></ul><ul><li>Management of Career Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Fair promotion policy </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate publicity </li></ul>
  46. 46. Career Development <ul><li>Essential for implementing Career Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Undertaken by individual employees and the organization to meet career aspirations and job requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Every employee must accept his responsibility for development </li></ul><ul><li>Career Planning and Organizational Career Planning will prove really useful if they are properly integrated </li></ul>
  47. 47. Organizational Career Planning Integrate short-term and long-term human resource needs Develop a career plan for each individual Individual Career Planning Assess personal interests and abilities Collect data about organizational Opportunities Set career goals Develop a strategy to achieve career goals Integrate organizational needs and individual career plans Designing individual career paths, create developmental Strategies and provide career counseling Career Development Implement career plans Publicize job vacancies Appraise employee performance Employee development through on-and -off the job experiences Evaluate career progression
  48. 48. Elements of career Development <ul><li>Career Need Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Developing and Publishing career Development Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Need-Opportunity Alignment </li></ul><ul><li>a) Management by Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>b) Career Counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring Career Moves </li></ul>
  49. 49. Problems in Career Development <ul><li>Dual Career Families </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Family Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Low Ceiling Careers </li></ul><ul><li>Declining Career Opportunities </li></ul>
  50. 50. Steps to Handle Problems <ul><li>Improve Manpower planning and forecasting systems </li></ul><ul><li>Improving dissemination of career option information </li></ul><ul><li>Initiated career counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Developing effective internal and external Assessment Centres </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting educational and training programs </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing more flexible reward and promotional systems </li></ul>
  51. 51. Career Counseling <ul><li>Career Planning involves counseling individuals on their possible career paths and what they must do to achieve promotions. </li></ul><ul><li>The need for such counseling arises when employees want to plan their own careers and develop or train themselves for career progression in the organization </li></ul>
  52. 52. Objectives of Career Counseling <ul><li>To help individual concerned to develop himself by giving him some idea of the direction in which he ought to be heading </li></ul><ul><li>To help individuals to study and understand the world in which they live </li></ul><ul><li>To provide guidelines to help him understand more clearly and develop his thinking and outlook </li></ul><ul><li>To provide guidance about opportunities for greater personal satisfaction, pleasure and happiness </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the forces and dynamics operating in a system </li></ul>
  53. 53. Career Stress <ul><li>Many employees experience stress at work which may be damaging to the individual and to the organziation. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Symptoms of Career Stress <ul><li>Apathy </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Increased accident proneness </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul>
  55. 55. Causes of Career Stress <ul><li>Blockage of career </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of control on himself as he feels that he is on the way out </li></ul><ul><li>Impending retirement </li></ul><ul><li>Out-paced by younger employees </li></ul>
  56. 56. Management Help <ul><li>Stress Management Program </li></ul><ul><li>Clarification of uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the level of participation </li></ul><ul><li>Job switch </li></ul><ul><li>Gainful occupation after retirement </li></ul>
  57. 57. Age Exploration Establishment Mid-career Late Career Growth? Maintenance? Stagnation? Career Stages

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