theoretical teaching in classrooms.
Generalized kind of knowledge.
TRAINING- process of imparting the
Specialized kind of knowledge
DEVELOPMENT- exposure of
employees to general
subject/knowledge & attitudinal aspect
of overall self improvement
Training and development input 3 types
TECHNICAL: required to do the job.
Example: machine operation, computer
usage, safe working skills
CONCEPTUAL: basic fundamental
knowledge of the subject
INTERPERSONAL: to understand
people better, to communicate well for
decision making process.
The gap between the present status and
desired status may indicate problems that
in turn can be translated into a training
A need is not a want or desire. It is a gap
between “what is” and “what ought to be”
method of determining if a training need
exists and, if it does, what training is
required to fill the gap.
METHODS OF TNA
ON THE JOB TRAINING
Employee training at the place of work
while he or she is doing the actual job.
Professional trainer acts as trainer.
ADVANTAGES: effective method
Free from artificial classroom
trainer may lack expertise
Not systematically organized.
A job design technique in which
employees are moved between two or
more jobs in a planned manner.
Job rotation is a well-planned practice
to reduce the boredom of doing same
type of job everyday and explore the
hidden potential of an employee.
Step-by-step training in which the
trainer explains the way of doing the
jobs, gives the job knowledge and
skills to the trainee and allows him to
do the job.
The trainer appraises the performance
of the trainee, provides feedback
information and corrects the trainee.
Under the committee assignment,
group of trainees are given and asked
to solve an actual organizational
The trainees solve the problem jointly.
It develops team work and improve it.
Apprenticeship is a formalized method
of training curriculum program that
combines classroom education with
on-the-job work under close
The training curriculum is planned in
advance and conducted in careful
steps from day to day.
They have to work in direct
association with and also under the
direct supervision of their masters.
The trainee is placed under a particular
supervisor who functions as a coach in
training the individual.
The supervisor provides feedback to the
trainee on his performance and offers
him some suggestions for improvement
LIMITATION- trainee may not have the
freedom or opportunity to express his
Job mentoring involves providing an
employee with an experienced coach
to oversee his or her learning
The trainee employee learns the job
firsthand and may consult the mentor
or coach at any time for assistance.
The focus in this training is on the
development of attitude.
MENTORING AND COACHING
Does not requires
a design phase
manager is directly
Always long term
Requires a design
A superior gives training to a
subordinate as his understudy like an
assistant to a manager or director.
The subordinate learns through
experience and observation by
participating in handling day to day