= ability to act speaks to submission, i.e. one partner is unable to consent and so is coerced, not consenting… intoxicants render a victim both mentally and physically unable to consent. Explicit consent is outloud, implicit can be non-verbal, but requires even more communication, and can be misunderstood or coercive. The idea is to make talking about consent (sex itself, really) ok. Positiv and sincere speaks to coercion
Why is there less reporting? What do we say when something happens to someone who is wasted? How about someone who DOES something stupid when wasted? Why is there a discrepancy?
Understanding ‘NO’: Coercion vs. Consent Jean Nidetch Women’s Center PAAVE Presentation 2011
Workshops and presentations Events on campus (Vagina Monologues, Denim Day,) Advocacy for violence prevention Academic involvement Four on staff, certified victim advocates
Peers Advocating Anti-Violence Education Formerly known as SAFE Team, began in 2002 Complete 18- hour training on domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking
Statistics Sexual Assault Consent Coercion Submission Communication
Nevada remains #1 in the nation for Domestic Violence Homicides Nevada remains #4 in the nation for sexual assault UNLV had one forcible rape reported in 2009, but the largest demographic reporting to the Rape Crisis Center is between the ages of 17-25
The F.B.I. estimates that one in three women and one in seven men in this country will be sexually assaulted in her lifetime. In the majority of rape cases, 84%, the perpetrator is someone the victim knows- a partner, spouse, classmate, date, co- worker, neighbor, or family member.
Nevada Revised Statutes: Sexual Assault “A person who subjects another person to sexual penetration, or who forces another person to make a sexual penetration on himself or another, against the victim’s will or under conditions in which the perpetrator knows or should know that the victim is mentally or physically incapable of resisting or understanding the nature of his conduct, is guilty of sexual assault”
Sexual assault is a broader category that the Justice Department uses to classify rape, attempted rape and other violent felonies that fall short of rape. Coercion/Seduction/Statutory Molestation Harassment Stalking Interpersonal Violence
What is consent?Mentally Unable?Physically Unable?Explicit and Implicit ConsentComponents of ConsentBoth parties are fully conscious.Both parties have equal ability to act.Both parties are positive and sincere in their desires.Both parties have clearly communicated their intent.
Unaware consent is necessary Fear of Rejection Ruining the Moment May hear partner is a survivor May not know how
Hypothetical situations… “What if we…” “How would you feel if we…” “What do you think about…” “Do you want to know how I feel about…” I statements… “I was thinking it would be fun if we…” “I want to make sure we’re both thinking the same thing… Coercion is NOT consent: yes means yes!
Both parties are fully conscious.Both parties have equal ability to act.Both parties are positive and sincere in their desires.Both parties have clearly communicated their intent.
The Role of Alcohol Alcohol is the most common drug used to facilitate sexual assaults- particularly among college students. As opposed to other drugs (such as GHB and Rohypnol) that are often given to victims without their knowledge, alcohol is often consumed consensually. Perpetrators often take advantage of victims who are already intoxicated, or purposefully get a target drunk in order to facilitate a sexual assault.
Victim is too drunk to consent for 1 of 3 reasons: Surreptitious administration by assailant Mixing of prescription or over the counter drugs with alcohol or recreational drugs Recreational use by victim
97,000 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 are the victim of alcohol related sexual assaults each year. (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: A Snapshot of Annual High- Risk College Drinking Consequences. ) Victims of drug-facilitated or incapacitated rape were less likely than victims of forcible rape to report to authorities. (Kilpatrick, Dean, PhD, et al, Drug-facilitated, Incapacitated and Forcible Rape: A National Study (2007))
Alcohol alone Alcohol mixed with drugs surreptitiously administered by assailant Alcohol mixed with prescription, over the counter drugs Alcohol mixed with recreational drugs * synergistic effect of combining drugs
Synergistic Effect The interaction of two or more substances or other agents to produce a combined effect that is greater than the sum of their separate effects
Did victim: Vomit? Urinate? Defecate?Could victim: Walk? Talk? Did victim have to be helped with physical tasks?Did defendant: Carry victim? Follow victim?
Ethanol And Blackouts Blackout: Periods of memory loss for events that transpired while a person was drinking (no loss of consciousness- not passed out) Ethanol induced memory impairment includes disruption to the hippocampus which plays a central role in formation of new memory.Ethanol And Passouts Alcohol-induced unconsciousness Not asleep, but sedated-due to CNS depressant effect Resembles sedated state associated with surgery Can last for hours Groggy-sedated feeling can linger for 24 hours
Many different forms of violence in a relationship ◦ Often are dismissed as “isolated” or “random” acts of anger ◦ Media images contribute to a social complicity of violence and often portrays signs of violence in relationships as signals of “passion” or “lust” ◦ Signs of abuse overlap and escalate
Has the abuser… ◦ Called you stupid or insulted your intelligence? ◦ Criticized your appearance? ◦ Told you that you could never leave him/her? ◦ Told you that you could be easily replaced? ◦ Said that no one else would want you?
Has the abuser… ◦ Ridiculed or insulted your gender as a group? ◦ Ridiculed your beliefs, morals, race, religion or heritage? ◦ Humiliated you in public OR private? ◦ Insulted or driven away your friends or family? ◦ Manipulated you with lies or contradictions? ◦ Threatened to hurt themselves if you left?
Has the abuser… ◦ Held or restrained you to keep you from leaving? ◦ Slapped or pushed you? ◦ Locked you out of the house? ◦ Refused to help you when you were sick, injured or pregnant? ◦ Forced or aggressively pressured you to consume alcohol or drugs?
Has the abuser… ◦ Forced you to strip when you didn’t want to? ◦ Been jealous or angry, assuming you have had sex with someone else? ◦ Criticized you sexually? ◦ Forced you into unwanted sex? ◦ Withheld sex and affection? ◦ Insisted on uncomfortable or unwanted touching?
Has the abuser… ◦ Taken credit cards/checks/money away as a form of punishment? ◦ Forced you to hand over money or your paychecks? ◦ Refused to tell you about bills? ◦ Are they the only one “allowed” to work? ◦ Taken your name off crucial documents (insurance, leases) to prevent your access to them? ◦ Drained your bank account?
Lesbian and gay relationships Transgender students, students questioning their gender identity Men, often by other men Anyone can be a victim of sexual assault or domestic violence. If you or someone you know is involved with interpersonal violence know that there are resources to help you.Be aware & sensitive of language! Words matter.
Can be short or long term ◦ Cutting/ self-mutilation ◦ Eating disorders ◦ Depression ◦ Alcohol and substance abuse ◦ Re-entrance into a violent relationship ◦ Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) ◦ Academic Career
Go to a safe place Seek medical attention immediately. University Medical Center (UMC) is the only hospital that will do a rape kit. You may be injured more seriously than you realize. Medical evidence will be needed, if you decide to press charges. Call University Police (895-3668) or CALL 911. Reporting is not the same as pressing charges. Call the Counseling and Psychological Services (895-3627). Do not blame yourself-you are the victim of a crime. Do NOT bathe, shower, douche, or change clothes until you have talked with the police or nurse. However, if you have already done these things, please do not let his stop you from seeking medical care. If you’ve changed clothes , place the clothes you were wearing in a paper bag and them to the hospital with you. Remember you may have an advocate to help every step of the way
Anyone can be a victim of sexual assault or domestic violence. If you or someone you know is involved with interpersonal violence know that there are confidential resources to help you. Rape Crisis Center ◦ 702-366-1640 More information available at: ◦ The Jean Nidetch Women’s Center, UNLV 702.895.4475 SSC-A-rm255