Why is there less reporting? What do we say when something happens to someone who is wasted? How about someone who DOES something stupid when wasted? Why is there a discrepancy?
Alcohol & consent
Jean Nidetch Women’s Center andP.A.A.V.E. (Peers Advocating Anti-Violence Education)Present:
Jean Nidetch Women’s Center Workshops and presentations Events on campus Advocacy for violence prevention and breast cancer awareness Academic involvement Four on staff, certified victim advocates
P.A.A.V.EPeers Advocating Anti-Violence Education Formerly known as SAFE Team, began in 2002 Presenters complete an 18-hour training on domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking
Overview Sexual Assault, Domestic Violence, and Alcohol Facilitated Sexual Assault Definitions Consent Statistics Effects on Victims Rethinking Violence http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DqHYeCLBG6s&playnext =1&list=PL66015E1E63A0A300
Definitions Sexual assault is a broader category that the Justice Department uses to classify rape, attempted rape and other violent felonies that fall short of rape.
Statistics The F.B.I. estimates that one in three women in this country will be sexually assaulted in her lifetime. According to the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, one in five undergraduate women have been raped. In the majority of rape cases, 84%, the perpetrator is someone the victim knows- a partner, spouse, classmate, date, co-worker, neighbor, or family member.
Nevada Revised Statutes: Sexual Assault “A person who subjects another person to sexual penetration, or who forces another person to make a sexual penetration on himself or another, against the victim’s will or under conditions in which the perpetrator knows or should know that the victim is mentally or physically incapable of resisting or understanding the nature of his conduct, is guilty of sexual assault”
Mentally Unable? Incapacitated Mentally incapable of resisting or consentingDegree of intoxication Were the victims motor skills impaired? Was the victim able to perceive what was happening around them? Who gave the victim the drinks or drugs? Was it the accused? Did accused encourage the victim to drink or use more drugs?
What is consent?Both parties are fully conscious.Both parties have equal ability to act.Both parties are positive and sincere in their desires.Both parties have clearly communicated their intent.Why don’t people get consent? Fear of Rejection May hear partner is a survivor May not know how
How do I get consent? Hypothetical situations… “What if we…” “How would you feel if we…” “What do you think about…” I statements… Coercion is NOT consent
Did victim: Vomit? Urinate? Defecate?Could victim: Walk? Talk? Did victim have to be helped with physical tasks?Did defendant: Carry victim? Follow victim?
Ethanol And Blackouts Blackout: Periods of memory loss for events that transpired while a person was drinking (no loss of consciousness- not passed out) Ethanol induced memory impairment includes disruption to the hippocampus which plays a central role in formation of new memory.Ethanol And Passouts Alcohol-induced unconsciousness Not asleep, but sedated-due to CNS depressant effect Resembles sedated state associated with surgery Can last for hours Groggy-sedated feeling can linger for 24 hours
Prevalence of Alcohol FacilitatedSexual Assault (AFSA) 97,000 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 are the victim of alcohol related sexual assaults each year. (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: A Snapshot of Annual High-Risk College Drinking Consequences. ) Victims of drug-facilitated or incapacitated rape were less likely than victims of forcible rape to report to authorities. (Kilpatrick, Dean, PhD, et al, Drug-facilitated, Incapacitated and Forcible Rape: A National Study (2007))
What IS Alcohol-Facilitated Sexual Assault(AFSA)?Victim is too drunk to consent for 1 of 3 reasons: Surreptitious administration by assailant Mixing of prescription or over the counter drugs with alcohol or recreational drugs Recreational use by victim
The Role of Alcohol Alcohol is the most common drug used to facilitate sexual assaults- particularly among college students. As opposed to other drugs (such as GHB and Rohypnol) that are often given to victims without their knowledge, alcohol is often consumed consensually. Perpetrators often take advantage of victims who are already intoxicated, or purposefully get a target drunk in order to facilitate a sexual assault. These perpetrators most often have had much less to drink than the victim and in some cases have not consumed alcohol at all.
Victim May Be Incapacitated Due To The Effects Of: Alcohol alone Alcohol mixed with drugs surreptitiously administered by assailant Alcohol mixed with prescription, over the counter drugs Alcohol mixed with recreational drugs * synergistic effect of combining drugs
Synergistic Effect The interaction of two or more substances or other agents to produce a combined effect that is greater than the sum of their separate effects
Central Nervous System Depression Of Ethanol Impairs judgment Depresses learned social and cultural inhibitions Impairs self-evaluation Euphoria Memory loss Shortened attention span Sedation Blurred vision Altered distance perception Impaired hearing Reduced muscle coordination Increased reaction time Light fixation (J. C. Garriott. (1996) Medicolegal Aspects of Alcohol. Tucson, AZ)
The Reality Approximately 50% of all sexual assaults are committed by a man who has been drinking. (Abbey et al. (2004)) In a nationwide survey of college students, 68% of sexual assaults involved alcohol consumption by the offender. (Fisher et al. (2003)) Is there any evidence the accused selected victim because they knew they would be an easy target? Did the accused use Coercion? Threats? Force? Did the victim say no?
Sexual Predator vs. Just Some Drunk Accused’s degree of intoxication, capacity to do other things Any planning, manipulation or attempts to deceive victim Accused’s attempts to control the situation and overcome victim’s will, e.g., providing alcohol or drugs, isolation, lies
Themes Sexual assault is all about control. A predator picks their prey. Who needs force when you have alcohol? Drunk victims are less able to resist. The perpetrator picks a victim with no ability to choose/someone they feel entitled to/ easy victim/ victim with no memory; they had a plan.
Effects on Victims Can be short or long term Cutting/ self-mutilation Eating disorders Depression Alcohol and substance abuse Re-entrance into a violent relationship Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)* - More information on PTSD and violence is available upon request Academic Career
Conclusion Anyone can be a victim of sexual assault or domestic violence. If you or someone you know is involved with interpersonal violence know that there are confidential resources to help you.Local Resources Rape Crisis Center ◦ 366-1640 More information available at: ◦ The Jean Nidetch Women’s Center, UNLV SSC A, 255 – 702.895.4475