Ch 1 And 2


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  • Ch 1 And 2

    1. 1. Welcome to the World of Chemistry Pre-AP and Regular: Ch. 1-2 SAVE PAPER AND INK!!! When you print out the notes on PowerPoint, print "Handouts" instead of "Slides" in the print setup. Also, turn off the backgrounds (Tools>Options>Print>UNcheck "Background Printing")!
    2. 2. It’s because he was a teacher!!!
    3. 3. The Language of Chemistry <ul><li>CHEMICAL ELEMENTS - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. </li></ul></ul>Sodium Bromine Aluminum
    4. 4. The Language of Chemistry <ul><li>The elements, their names, and symbols are given on the PERIODIC TABLE </li></ul><ul><li>How many elements are there? </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Periodic Table <ul><li>Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 - 1907) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Glenn Seaborg (1912-1999) <ul><li>Discovered 8 new elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Only living person for whom an element was named. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Branches of Chemistry <ul><li>Many major areas of study for specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Several career opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Also used in many other jobs </li></ul>
    8. 8. 1. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Organic is the study of matter that contains carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Organic chemists study the structure, function, synthesis, and identity of carbon compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Useful in petroleum industry, pharmaceuticals, polymers </li></ul>
    9. 9. 2. Inorganic Chemistry <ul><li>Inorganic is the study of matter that does NOT contain carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic chemists study the structure, function, synthesis, and identity of non-carbon compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Polymers, Metallurgy </li></ul>
    10. 10. 3. Biochemistry <ul><li>Biochemistry is the study of chemistry in living things </li></ul><ul><li>Cross between biology and chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceuticals and genetics </li></ul>
    11. 11. 4. Physical Chemistry <ul><li>Physical chemistry is the physics of chemistry… the forces of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Much of IPC is computational </li></ul><ul><li>Develop theoretical ideas for new compounds </li></ul>
    12. 12. 5. Analytical Chemistry <ul><li>Analytical chemistry is the study of high precision measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Find composition and identity of chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Forensics, quality control, medical tests </li></ul>
    13. 14. Is This Your Version of the Scientific Method??
    14. 15. Or Do You Feel Like This When Doing Science?
    15. 16. Scientific Method <ul><li>State the problem clearly. </li></ul><ul><li>Gather information. </li></ul><ul><li>Form a hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Test the hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the data to form a conclusion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> If the conclusion is valid, then it becomes a theory. If the theory is found to be true over along period of time (usually 20+ years) with no counter examples, it may be considered a law. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6. Share the results. </li></ul>
    16. 17. Nature of Science Terms <ul><li>Fact: an observation that has been repeatedly confirmed and for all practical purposes is accepted as “true”. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: A tentative statement about the natural world leading to deductions that can be tested. If the deductions are verified, the hypothesis is corroborated. If false, the hypothesis must be abandoned or revised. </li></ul><ul><li>Law: A descriptive generalization about how some aspect of the natural world behaves under stated circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory: A well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, inferences, and tested hypothesis. </li></ul>
    17. 18. Graphs
    18. 19. Bar Graph <ul><li>shows how many of something </li></ul><ul><li>are in each category </li></ul>
    19. 20. Pie Graph <ul><li>shows how a whole is broken into parts </li></ul>Percentage of Weekly Income
    20. 21. Line Graph <ul><li>shows continuous change </li></ul>Stock Price over Time
    21. 22. Elements of a “good” line graph <ul><li>axes labeled, with units </li></ul><ul><li>use the available space </li></ul><ul><li>title </li></ul><ul><li>neat </li></ul>
    22. 23. Graphs <ul><li>Line Graph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to show trends or continuous change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bar Graph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to display information collected by counting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pie Graph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to show how some fixed quantity is broken down into parts </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Line Graph Mass (g) Age (Year of Penny) Mass (g) Age (Year of Penny) Mass (g) Age (Year of Penny) Mass (g) Age (Year of Penny) How does the mass of a penny change with age? A B C D
    24. 25. Bar Graph Number of Students Chemistry Grades Descriptive title Legend Axis labeled (with units)
    25. 26. Pie Graph
    26. 27. Pie Graphs
    27. 28. Matter And Energy Chemistry: Chapter 2
    28. 29. The Nature of Matter <ul><li>Chemists are interested in the nature of matter and how this is related to its atoms and molecules. </li></ul>Gold Mercury
    29. 30. Chemistry & Matter <ul><li>We can explore the MACROSCOPIC world — what we can see — </li></ul><ul><li>to understand the PARTICULATE worlds we cannot see. </li></ul><ul><li>We write SYMBOLS to describe these worlds. </li></ul>
    30. 31. A Chemist’s View of Water H 2 O (gas, liquid, solid) Macroscopic Symbolic Particulate
    31. 32. A Chemist’s View 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) --> 2 H 2 O(g) Macroscopic Symbolic Particulate
    32. 33. Kinetic Nature of Matter <ul><li>Matter consists of atoms and molecules in motion. </li></ul>
    33. 34. STATES OF MATTER <ul><li>SOLIDS — have rigid shape, fixed volume. External shape can reflect the atomic and molecular arrangement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonably well understood. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LIQUIDS — have no fixed shape and may not fill a container completely. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not well understood. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GASES — expand to fill their container. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good theoretical understanding. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 35. OTHER STATES OF MATTER <ul><li>PLASMA — an electrically charged gas; Example: the sun or any other star </li></ul><ul><li>BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE — a condensate that forms near absolute zero that has superconductive properties; Example: supercooled Rb gas </li></ul>
    35. 36. Physical Properties <ul><li>What are some physical properties? </li></ul><ul><li>color </li></ul><ul><li>melting and boiling point </li></ul><ul><li>odor </li></ul>
    36. 37. <ul><li>Graphite — layer structure of carbon atoms reflects physical properties. </li></ul>
    37. 38. Physical Changes <ul><ul><li>can be observed without changing the identity of the substance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some physical changes would be </li></ul><ul><li>boiling of a liquid </li></ul><ul><li>melting of a solid </li></ul><ul><li>dissolving a solid in a liquid to give a homogeneous mixture — a SOLUTION. </li></ul>
    38. 39. Chemical Properties and Chemical Change <ul><li>Burning hydrogen (H 2 ) in oxygen (O 2 ) gives H 2 O. </li></ul>
    39. 40. Chemical Properties and Chemical Change <ul><li>Chemical change or chemical reaction — transformation of one or more atoms or molecules into one or more different molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Burning hydrogen (H 2 ) in oxygen (O 2 ) gives H 2 O. </li></ul>
    40. 41. Sure Signs of a Chemical Change <ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Produced (not from boiling!) </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitate – a solid formed by mixing two liquids together </li></ul>
    41. 42. Physical vs. Chemical <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>melting point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flammable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>magnetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tarnishes in air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical </li></ul></ul>
    42. 43. Physical vs. Chemical <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rusting iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dissolving in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>burning a log </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>melting ice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grinding spices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical </li></ul></ul>
    43. 44. Matter Flowchart MATTER Can it be physically separated? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous Mixture Compound yes no Element MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE Can it be chemically decomposed? no yes Is the composition uniform? no yes Colloids Suspensions
    44. 45. Types of Mixtures <ul><li>Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances. </li></ul>Heterogeneous – visibly separate phases Homogeneous – Same throughout
    45. 46. Law of Conservation of Matter There is no observable change in the quantity of matter during a chemical reaction or a physical change. In other words, matter cannot be created nor destroyed. It is just converted from one form to another
    46. 47. Now You Should Be Able To… <ul><li>Differentiate between physical and chemical </li></ul><ul><li>properties of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical property – anything that you can measure </li></ul><ul><li>or observe without changing the identity of </li></ul><ul><li>the substance: density, viscosity, fluidity, </li></ul><ul><li>volume, mass, color, state, </li></ul><ul><li>conductivity, melting point, boiling point, </li></ul><ul><li>odor, solubility </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical property – relates to the substances ability </li></ul><ul><li>to undergo changes that transform it into </li></ul><ul><li>different substances: reactivity, oxidizers, (haven’t learned this yet) </li></ul><ul><li>reducers, reacts with acids, flammability, </li></ul><ul><li>corrosiveness, stability, reacts with water </li></ul>
    47. 48. <ul><li>Investigate and identify properties of mixtures and </li></ul><ul><li>pure substances. (solutions, colloids, suspensions, </li></ul><ul><li>compounds, and elements) </li></ul><ul><li>Mixtures – blend of two or more substances with </li></ul><ul><li>variable composition including both </li></ul><ul><li>homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures </li></ul><ul><li>Pure substances – elements or compounds; have </li></ul><ul><li>fixed composition and properties </li></ul><ul><li>Use properties of samples to determine mixture or </li></ul><ul><li>pure substances using examples like </li></ul><ul><li>sandwich, rocks, sand, copper, water </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate 9 different kinds of mixtures including </li></ul><ul><li>solid in liquid, liquid in liquid, gas in liquid, etc. </li></ul>And Know This…
    48. 49. One More Thing… <ul><li>Analyze examples of solids, liquids, and gases to </li></ul><ul><li>determine their compressibility, structure, motion of </li></ul><ul><li>particles, shape, and volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Property solid liquid gas </li></ul><ul><li>compressibility no very little yes </li></ul><ul><li>structure ordered intermediate none </li></ul><ul><li>shape definite indefinite indefinite </li></ul><ul><li>volume definite definite indefinite </li></ul><ul><li>Motion vibrate flow rapid </li></ul><ul><li>random </li></ul>