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Unit 2 Notes- Properties of Matter- Komperda

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Unit 2 Notes- Properties of Matter- Komperda

  1. 1. Properties of Matter Chemistry Tuesday Sept. 2nd, 2008
  2. 2. What is Matter? <ul><li>Write down some words that describe matter in your notes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matter is: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EVERYTHING! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All around us </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes up all the objects we see </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and interact with </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What properties does matter have? <ul><li>Physical state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid- fixed volume & fixed shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid- fixed volume & variable shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas- variable volume & variable shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name something in each of these states </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Physical Properties <ul><li>Physical properties are properties that can be measured WITHOUT changing the nature of the substance </li></ul><ul><li>List some examples of physical properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Density Review <ul><li>What is the formula of density? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D = M/V </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M= mass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass is the quantity of matter in an object </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How is mass different from weight? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weight is the force produced on a mass due to gravity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V= volume </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volume is the space an object occupies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Density Review cont. <ul><li>What are the units of density? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>g/mL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>g/cc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>g/cm 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Density is a RATIO! </li></ul><ul><li>Is the density of an object always the same? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes! Density is a physical property of a substance </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Physical Change <ul><li>A physical change is a change that affects only the physical properties of a substance </li></ul><ul><li>List some physical changes in your notes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Chemical Properties <ul><li>Chemical properties can only be observed by changing the chemical composition of the substance (usually through interaction with another substance) </li></ul><ul><li>List some examples of chemical properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Chemical Change <ul><li>A change that produces one or more NEW chemical substances (bonds between atoms are rearranged). </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical changes are usually not reversible </li></ul><ul><li>List some examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of a new compound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burning a log </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What does this have to do with Chemistry???? <ul><li>Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties </li></ul><ul><li>Chemists study the structure and composition of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Chemists study changes in the structure and composition of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Chemists want to know WHY changes in matter occur </li></ul>
  11. 11. Chemistry Definitions <ul><li>Chemical- any substance with a definite composition </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reaction (rxn)- the process by which elements or compounds interact to form new substances </li></ul>
  12. 12. Writing chemical reactions <ul><li>Reactants  Products </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants- are present at the beginning of a reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Products- are the result of a reaction </li></ul>
  13. 13. How do you know when a chemical reaction has occurred? <ul><li>Write some guesses in your notes! </li></ul><ul><li>This is what our next lab is about!! </li></ul>
  14. 14. Verification of a Chemical Rxn <ul><ul><ul><li>A gas is produced - bubbles will be released </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baking soda & vinegar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A precipitate (solid) is formed – a solid is formed from two liquids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat is produced OR absorbed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endothermic – energy is absorbed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(feels cooler) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exothermic – energy is released </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(feels warmer) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Verification of a rxn cont. <ul><ul><ul><li>Light is emitted Example? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A color change in the reaction system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not confuse this with a dilution or blending of color </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making Kool-Aid is not a chemical reaction! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep in mind that some of these observations can be made during physical changes! </li></ul>

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