Ch1 notes typed_10_11


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Ch1 notes typed_10_11

  1. 1. CHEMISTRY – the study of thecomposition, structure, and propertiesof matter and the changes they undergo
  2. 2. Organic Chemistry – the study ofcompounds that contain carbon
  3. 3. Inorganic Chemistry – the study ofcompounds that DO NOT contain carbon
  4. 4. Physical Chemistry – the study of theproperties and changes of matter andtheir relationship to energy
  5. 5. Analytical Chemistry – the identifyingof components and composition ofmaterials
  6. 6. Biochemistry – the study of thesubstances and processes in livingthings
  7. 7. Theoretical Chemistry – the use ofmath and computers to understandprinciples behind chemical behaviorand to predict properties of newcompounds
  8. 8. Chemical – a substance witha definite composition
  9. 9. Basic Research – carried out for thesake of increasing knowledgeHow? and Why?But no specific goal in mind.
  10. 10. Applied Research – carriedout to solve a problem
  11. 11. Technological Development – developmentof products that improve our quality oflife
  12. 12. mass a measure of the amount of matter
  13. 13. matter anything that has mass and takes upspace
  14. 14. volume the amount of space an object takes up
  15. 15. atom the smallest unit of an element thatmaintains the properties of that element
  16. 16. ElementA substance that cannot be separated by ordinary chemicalor physical means. Elements are composed of only onekind of atom.Examples: Iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and oxygen (O2).
  17. 17. CompoundA substance that contains two or more elements, in definiteproportion. Water is 11.2% Hydrogen and 88.8% OxygenExamples: Table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl), sugar (sucrose,C12H22O11), and water (H2O).
  18. 18. Pure Substance A substance with constant composition. Can be classified an either an element or as a compound. Examples: Table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl), sugar (sucrose, C12H22O11), water (H2O), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and oxygen (O2).
  19. 19. Matter and Its Propertiesextensive property a property that dependson the amount of matter that is presentVolume, Mass, Amount of Energy it Contains
  20. 20. intensive property a property that does notdepend on the amount of matter present •Color •Odor •Luster •Malleability •Ductility •Conductivity •Hardness •Melting/Freezing Point •Boiling Point •Density
  21. 21. Matter and Its Propertiesphysical property a characteristic that can beobserved or measured without changing the identity ofthe substance melting point electrical conductivity color density boiling point thermal conductivity odor hardness
  22. 22. Matter and Its Propertiesphysical change a change in a substance that doesnot involve a change in the identity of the substanceEx. Melting, tearing, boiling, freezingWhen you step on a can and crush it, you have forced aphysical change. The shape of the object has changed. Itwasnt a change in the state of matter, but somethingchanged. When you melt an ice cube you have also forced aphysical change (adding energy).
  23. 23. Matter and Its Propertieschange of state a physical change of asubstance from one state to another
  24. 24. Matter and Its Propertiessolid the state of matter in which the substancehas definite volume and definite shape
  25. 25. Matter and Its Propertiesliquid the state of matter in which the substancehas a definite volume but an indefinite shape
  26. 26. Matter and Its Propertiesgas the state of matter in which a substance hasneither definite volume nor definite shape
  27. 27. Matter and Its Propertiesplasma a high-temperature physical state ofmatter in which atoms lose their electrons
  28. 28. chemical property the ability of a substanceto undergo a change that transforms it into adifferent substance
  29. 29. chemical change a change in which one or moresubstances are converted into differentsubstances (a chemical reaction) Reactants: substance that react Products: substance that are produced Sodium Na: Metal, Explodes in Water Chlorine Cl: Green, Poisonous Gas Sodium Chloride NaCl: Table Salt
  30. 30. Reactants: substance that reactProducts: substance that are produced
  31. 31. Classification of Matter
  32. 32. MixtureTwo or more substances, combined, each retaining its ownproperties. Can be separated without the making or breakingof chemical bonds.Examples: Air, salt dissolved in water, milk, wood, andconcrete.
  33. 33. Homogeneous MixtureMixture in which the properties and composition areuniform throughout the sample. Such mixtures are termedsolutions.Examples: Air and table salt thoroughly dissolved in water.
  34. 34. Heterogeneous MixtureMixture in which the properties and compositionare not uniform throughout the sample.Examples: Milk, wood, and concrete.
  35. 35. Strategies for SuccessThe Will to Succeed is Important But What is MoreImportant in the Will to Prepare…Bobby KnightExpected to be Called on During the Class PeriodRead the Assigned PagesTake Organized NotesCopy Notes Onto 3x5 CardsUse the Computer Based Tools (Homework, Practice Quizzes,Reading Assignments)Communicate With Your TeacherAsk Questions During Class(Your Teacher Appreciates the Opportunity to Explain Concepts inMore Detail)Master All Calculations or Ask QuestionsGet Extra Help Before School, After School, or During a Free Period