Criteria for Curriculum Assessment
THOMAS C. IRINGAN, Ph.D
CRITERIA FOR CURRICULUM
• Are set of standards to be
followed in assessment ,
• Set of standards upon diff.
elements of the curriculum are
• Will determine the diff. levels of
competencies or proficiency of
acceptable task performance.
CRITERIA FOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
• Statements of curricular expectations.
• Sets of learning outcomes specifically
designed for students.
• Indicates clearly what the students will learn.
• Must reflect the tasks ,skills , content
behavior and thought processes that make
up curricular domains.
• Must match the students needs.
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES ARE FORMULATED AND
SPECIFIED FOR THE FF. PURPOSES:
to have focus on curriculum and instruction which give
direction to where students need to go.
To meet the requirements specified in the policies and
standards of curriculum instruction.
To provide the students the best possible education
and describe their level of performance.
To monitor the progress of students based on the goals
To motivate students to learn and the teachers to be
able to feel a sense of competence when goals are
CRITERIA FOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
-BY HOWELL AND NOLET (2000)
GENERAL CRITERIA FOR EFFECTIVE
-includes the elements: CONTENT
, BEHAVIOR , CRITERIA AND
COMPLIANCE WITH LEGAL
-there should be a direct
relationship between the annual goals
and the student’s present level of
THE ANNUAL GOALS SHOULD DESCRIBE WHAT THE
LEARNERS SHOULD REASONABLYBE EXPECTED TO
ACCOMPLISH WITHIN A GIVEN PERIOD AND
APPROPRIATE INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURSES.
SHORT TERM INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES SHOULDBE
STATED SO CLEARLYSO THAT IT IS OBVIOUS HOW WE
WOULD MEASURE TO SEE IF THE OBJECTIVES ARE MET.
THE OBJECTIVES SHOULD DESCRIBE A SEQUENCE OF
INTERMIDIATE STEPS BETWEEN A CHILD’S PRESENT
LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL PERFORMENCEAND THE
ANNUAL GOALS THAT ARE ESTABLISHED.
THE STRANGER TEST-reliability!
-should write appropriate instructional
plans and evaluate student’s progress.
-the goals and objectives should be
written in a sufficiently observable and
The secret to stating something in
observable form is using behaviors .
(knowing the answer is hard to measure ,
because it is not directly observable but
writing the answer is easy to measure
because it is a behavior.)
BOTH KNOWLEDGE AND BEHAVIOR
-although it is knowledge ,that we are
most trying to transmit, we need to see
behaviors to know if we succeeded.
-the statement of behavior must be in an
objective to provide a measurable
indicator of learning. (To tell the students
to write the correct spelling of the science
vocabulary not to teach how to write but to
increase the knowledge in spelling.)
-it is also a mistake to focus only to the
behavior. (e.g. it would be a mistake to
require writing to a student who can’t write ,
THE SO-WHAT TEST
-speaks of validity
-because education is to prepare people to
be socially competent, this test asks
whether the goals and instructional
objectives are important.
-it involves value judgements and
curriculum speculation on about the child’s
long term needs.
-an objective should act to develop , rather
than to suppress , behavior.
Perhaps if necessary , goals or objectives
should include alternate positive behaviors.
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES ARE
DERIVED FROM ASSESSMENT DATA.
MUST BE ALIGNED WITH THE
STUDENT’S LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL
PERFORMANCE AND GOALS.
OBJECTIVES TELL WHAT THE
STUDENT WILL LEARN,NOT
DESCRIPTIONS OF WHAT THE
TEACHERS WILL DO OR WHAT THE
STUDENTS WILL FOLLOW.
DON’T HAVE TO FIT IN ONE
SENTENCE,AND DOING SO CAN BE
GUIDELINES IN FORM OF QUESTIONAIRE;
• Do the goals/objectives represent an important
learning outcome that is a priority for this
• Is there a goal written for each area of need
stated in the present level of performance?
• Are the goals realistic in a sense that they can be
accomplished in one year?
• Are the goals and objectives easily measured?
• Are there multiple objectives representing
intermediate steps to each goal ?
• Are the goals and objectives appropriately
calibrated?(too broad , or too narrow)
• Are the goals and instructional objectives useful
for planning and evaluating instructional programs?
CRITERIA FOR ASSESSMENT OF
-ANOTHER ELEMENT OF CURRICULUM
WHICH NEEDS CRITERIA FOR
-REFERS TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF
-CONCERNED WITH THE
METHODOLOGIES OF THE STRATEGIES
2 APPROACHES TO INSTRUCTION
-referred to as “DIRECT” instruction (ADAMS &
ENGLEMANN , 1996).
-the teacher attempts to promote learning by
providing explicit directions and explanations
regarding how to do a tank.
-the teachers assume primary responsibility for
linking new information with the student’s prior
knowledge and ultimately whatever the student’s
Information is presented in an ordered sequence in
w/c component subskills are thought directly or a
foundation for later tasks.
-this approach is highly teacher-directed.
-referred to as “constructivist” or “developmental”.
-in here the teachers function as facilitators who takes a
less central role in a learning process that is student
directed (esminger & dangel,1992).
-the teachers provide opportunities for the students to
make own linkages to prior knowledge and to devise her
own strategies for work.
-CONSTRUCTIVIST because much of its emphasis is on
helping students to construct their goals , experiences
-information is presented on a schedule determined by
the students’ interest and goals.
-sub-skilled could not be thought explicitly.
-Pre-requisites are expected to be learned as a
consequence of the larger understanding students would
be guided to construct.
-learning is assumed to be socially constructed out of the
interaction between the student’s innate tendencies and
predispositions and the social context in w/c the student
-it’s advocates sometimes take a restrictive view of
social context. They see teachers as unnatural or
meaningless until Stone,1996 puts Developmentalism.
WHAT ARE CURRICULUM CRITERIA?
-GUIDELINES ON STANDARD FOR CURRICULUM
-OBJECTIVES OF A CURRICULUM OR TEACHING
PLAN ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT CURRICULUM
CRITERIA,SINCE THEY SHOULD BE USED IN
SELECTING LEARNING EXPERIENCES AND IN
EVALUATING LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT.
• Have the goals of the curriculum or teaching
plan been clearly stated; and are they used by
teachers and students in choosing content ,
materials and activities for learning?
• Have teachers and students engaged in
student-teacher planning in defining the goals
and determining how will they be
• Do some of the planned goals relate to the
society or the community in w/c the
curriculum will be implemented or the teaching
will be done?
• Do some of the planned goals relate to
the individual learner and his/her needs,
purposes, interests and liabilities?
• Are planned goals used as criteria in
selecting and developing learning
materials for instruction?
• Are the planned goals used as criteria in
evaluating learning achievement and in
the further planning of learning and sub
goals and activities?
HASS AND PARAKAY(1993)
-’Individual differences , flexibility and systematic planning are
criteria that depend in part on knowledge of the different approaches
-The CRITERION are as follows:
Does the curriculum include alternative approaches and activities
Have the different learning theories been considered in planning
alternative learning approaches and activities?
Has the significance of rewarded responses , transfer
,generalization ,advance organizers , self-concept ,
meaningfulness of the whole ,personal meaning ,imitation,
identification &socialization been considered in the planning?
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD
-Must posses a specific characteristics in the
pursuit of the aims of education the schools
are to pursue.
-a GOOD CURRICULUM includes the ff.:
The curriculum is continuously evolving.
-must have a continuous monitoring and
-must adapt its educational activities and
services to meet the needs of a modern and
-a good curriculum is a Progressive
THE CURRICULUM IS BASED ON
THE NEEDS OF THE PEOPLE.
-developing begins with those that concern
the people themselves.
-reflects the needs of the individual and the
society as a whole.
-in proper shape in order to meet the
challenges of times and make education more
responsive to the client it serves.
The curriculum is
-developed through the efforts of a group
of individuals from diff. sectors in the
-a product of many minds and energies.
The curriculum is a result
of a long term effort
-is a product of long and tedious project.
The curriculum is a
The curriculum or the logical
sequence of subject matter.
-Learning is DEVELOPMENTAL.
-must be planned in order according to the
development of the subject matter and the progress of
-Must provide a continuity of experience.
The curriculum complements and
cooperates with other programs in the
-must be responsive to the need of the community.
-the school offers its assistance in the improvement
and realization of on going programs of the
THE CURRICULUM HAS EDUCATIONAL QUALITY.
“Quality Education comes through the situation of the individual’s
intellectual and creative capacities for social welfare and
-helps the learner to become the best he could possibly be.
-its support system is secured to augment existing sources for its
sufficient and effective implementation.
The curriculum has administrative flexibility.
-must be ready to incorporate changes whenever
-open to revision and development to meet the demands
of globalization and the digital age.
MARKS OF GOOD CURRICULUM ( by:
J. Galen Saylor )
1. A good curriculum is systematically
planned and evaluated.
• A definite organization is responsible
for coordinating , planning and
• Steps in planning and evaluation are
logically defined and taken.
• Ways or workings utilize the
contributions of all concerned.
2. A good curriculum reflects adequately
the aims of the school.
• The faculty has defined comprehensive
• The scope of the curriculum includes areas
related to all stated aims.
• Each curriculum opportunity is planned with
reference to one or more aims.
• In planning opportunities from year to year and
in each area teachers consider the total scope
3. A good curriculum maintains a balance
among all aims of the school.
• the curriculum pays attention to each aim
commensurate with its importance.
• The total plan of curriculum opportunities in
basic areas, school activities and social interests
reflects careful planning w/ respect to all aims.
• Guidance of each individuals helps provide him
with a program w/c is well-balanced I terms of
his needs and capacities.
• The school organization , schedule and facilities
help in giving appropriate attention to each aim.
• Classroom activities and schedules are arranged
so as to provide a balanced program of varied
4.A good curriculum promotes continuity of
• Provisions are made for the smooth transition and
continuing achievement of pupils from one
classroom ,grade or school to the other.
• Curriculum plan in areas w/c extend in over several
years are developed vertically
• Classroom practices give attention to the maturity
and learning problems of each student.
• Cooperative planning and teaching provide for
exchange of info. About pupil’s learning
5.A good curriculum arranges learning
opportunities flexibly for adaptation to
particular situations and individuals.
• Curriculum guides encourage teachers to make
their own plans for specific learning situations.
• Cooperative teaching and planning utilize many
opportunities as they arise to share learning
resources and special talents.
• Time allotments and schedule s are modified as
• In accordance with their maturity , pupils
participate in the planning of learning experiences.
• The selection of learning experiences reflects
careful attention to the demands of the learning
6.A good curriculum utilizes the most effective
learning experiences and resources available.
• Learning experiences are developed so that pupils
see purpose , meaning and significance in each
• Needed available resources are utilized at the
time they are relevant and helpful.
• Use of the right learning resource for each pupil is
• Teachers discriminate wisely between activities
w/c pupils carryon independently and those w/in
teacher-pupil interaction is desirable.
7.A good curriculum makes maximum
provision for the development of each
• The program provides a wide range of opportunities for
individuals of varying activities ,needs, and interests.
• Extensive arrangements are made for the educational
diagnosis of individual learners.
• Self-directed independent study is encouraged wherever
possible and advisable.
• Self-motivation and self-evaluation are stimulated and
emphasized throughout the learning activities of the school
• The curriculum promotes individual development rather than
conformity to some hypothetical standards
• The school attempts to follow up its former students both at
service to them and for evaluative data.
The process of determining the value of
something or the extent to w/c goals are
A process of making decision or reading a
Involves decision making about student
performance based on information
obtained from an assessment process.
ASSESSMENT-THE PROCESS OF COLLECTING
INFORMATION BY REVIEWING THE PRODUCTS
The process of using information
that is collected through
Its purpose is to improve student
Entails a reasoning process that is
based on influence.
It is a thoughtful process.
Core- the idea of
summarize the findings,note the
INFERENCE is the process of arriving
at a logical conclusion from a body of
-refers to the process of developing a
conclusion on the basis of some
phenomenon that is not experienced or
observed directly by the person drawing
Is the judgement we make bout
assessments of the student learning
based on a established criteria.
Involves a process of integrating
assessment information from various
sources and using this information to
make inferences and judgements about
how well students have achieved
Involves placing a value on and determining
the worth of a student assessment.
Usually made so that progress can be
communicated to students and parents.
Evaluation provides information;
a) Directly to the learner
b) Directly to the teacher for information of
the next instruction activities.
c) Directly to external agencies for their
assessment of schools functioning in the
light of national purpose.
• Is the process of obtaining info
for judging the worth of an
educational program , product
, procedure ,educational
objectives or the potential
utility of alternative
approaches designed to attain
• Focuses in determining whether
the curriculum as recorded in
• Takes place at the end of the unit or section of
• Sums up the learning.
• Takes place during the lesson and tells the
evaluator what is happening.
• On-going and yields information that can be
used to modify the program prior to