Approaches to curriculum


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Approaches to curriculum

  2. 2. CURRICULUM DESIGN? The arrangement of the elements of a curriculum into a substantive entity. • Substantive: Having a firm basis in reality and therefore important, meaningful, or considerable. • Entity: A thing with distinct and independent existence.
  3. 3. APPROACH? An approach to curriculum reflects the person’s view of the world, including what the person perceives as reality, the values deemed important, and the amount of knowledge he or she possesses. A curriculum approach reflects holistic position of metaorientation, encompassing the foundations of curriculum (the person’s philosophy, or view of social issues), domains of curriculum (common and important knowledge within the field) and the theoritical and practical principles of curriculum. =4&sid=21102436664431
  4. 4. 1. The Teacher 2. The Learners 3. Knowledge, Skills, Values 4. Strategies and Methods 5. Performance 6. Community Partners The Six (6) Features of a Curriculum
  5. 5.  quality education requires quality teachers  good teachers bring a shining light into the learning environment  ideal companions of the learners  with advances in communication technology, good teachers are needed to sort out the knowledge from the information from the data that surround the learners and from the wisdom from the knowledge The Teacher
  6. 6.  they are at the center stage in the educative process  the most important factor in the learning environment  there is no teaching without them  their diverse background should be accepted  their needs should be addressed and met  they should be provided with learning opportunities and varied experiences The Learners
  7. 7.  a “curriculum oriented to tomorrow” should be designed to help learners cope with the rapid changes  educational process should lie not only in what they learn, but how they learn and how good they will be in continuing to learn after they leave school Knowledge, Skills, Values
  8. 8.  teachers should prepare his/her syllabus or a course of study as his vehicle for instruction  learning goals, instructional procedures and content must be clearly explained to students  there must be balance of theory and practice  learner’s sustained interest in the subject should be made meaningful and relevant
  9. 9.  teachers should remember that there is no best strategy that could work in a million of different student background and characteristics  teachers must use appropriate methodologies, approaches and strategies “capped with compassionate and winsome nature” to objectives of the lesson Strategies and Methods
  10. 10.  teachers should select teaching methods, learning activities and instructional materials or resources appropriate to learners and aligned to objectives of the lesson  situations should be created to encourage learners to use higher order thinking skills  utilize information derived from assessment to improve teaching and learning and adopt a culture of excellence
  11. 11.  knowledge, skills and values to be developed by the learners serve as guiding post of the teachers  at the end of the teaching act, it is necessary to find out if the objectives set were accomplished (in curriculum these are called learning outcomes)  these learning outcomes indicate both the performance of both the teacher and the students Performance
  12. 12.  learning outcomes are the product of performance of the learners as a result of teaching  performance is a feature of a curriculum that should be given emphasis  the curriculum is deemed to be successful if the performance of the learners is higher than the target set  if the performance is low then it follows that the curriculum has failed  a good curriculum is one that results in high or excellent performance
  13. 13.  teaching is a collaborative undertaking  to be effective, teachers must draw upon the resources of their environment even if they are the focal Point in the learning process  teachers must establish relationship with parents, NGO’s, and their stakeholders  partnership is a means and not an end to be pursued Community Partners
  14. 14.  an absence of partnership often means a poor definition of education ends  as society changes, teachers will have a new beginning, an opportunity to recast their roles in their communities, to change their attitude to their communities, to challenge the attitude of their communities and societies about them
  15. 15. The three major curriculum design models are implemented through the different approaches that are accepted by the teachers and curriculum practitioners. How the design is utilized becomes the approach to the curriculum. Approaches to Curriculum Design
  16. 16.   this approach to curriculum design is based on the underlying philosophy that the child is the center of the educational process  curriculum is constructed based on the needs, interests, purposes and abilities of the learners  curriculum is also built upon the learner’s knowledge, skills, learning and potentials Child or Learner-Centered Approach
  17. 17. This approach considers the following:  A new respect for the child is fundamental  A new freedom of action is provided  The whole activity is divided into units of work  The recognition of the need for using and exploring many media for self-discovery and self-direction is embraced
  18. 18. Anchored on the curriculum design which prescribes different and separate subjects into one broad field, this approach considers the following: Subject-Centered Approach
  19. 19.  The primary focus is the subject matter  The emphasis is on bits and pieces of information which are detached from life  The continuing pursuit of learning outside the school is not emphasized. Learning should only take place inside the classroom.  The subject matter serves as a means of identifying problems in living
  20. 20. This approach is based on a curriculum design which assumes that in the process of living, children experience problems. Thus, problem solving enables the learners to become increasingly able to achieve complete or total development as individuals. Problem-Centered Approach
  21. 21. This approach is characterized by the following views and beliefs:  The learners are capable of directing and guiding themselves in resolving problems, thus they become independent learners  The learners are prepared to assume their civic responsibilities through direct participation in different activities The curriculum leads the learners in the recognition of concerns and problems and in seeking solutions. The learners are considered problem solvers
  22. 22. HUMAN RELATIONS-CENTERED APPROACH • HUMAN RELATIONS : • Learned early in life through deliberate planning by the teacher - MURIEL CROSBY • The social and interpersonal relations between human beings : a course, study, or program designed to develop better interpersonal and intergroup adjustments HUMAN RELATIONS
  23. 23. • How does a teacher go about the task of planning and developing a curriculum? : In planning a curriculum designed to foster effective human relations, the teacher starts with the problems her children experiences in daily living: Neighborhood Community Larger community like state, region, world How does a teacher go about the task of planning and developing a curriculum? • Ways of identifying the problems : Through the use of all the available resources available to her including: • Records • Test results • Observations • Conferences
  24. 24. IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN RELATIONS -CENTERED CURRICULUM: • 1. It is founded upon a professional knowledge of human growth and development and the ways in which human beings learn. • 2. It recognizes the practicalities of group life. • 3. It provides opportunities to solve common problems of the group as they are manifested by the individuals in it. • 4. It is concerned with the implications of the changes in the nature and complexity of modern life.
  25. 25. WHY DO WE SAY THAT PROBLEM- CENTERED CURRICULUM IS IMPORTANT IN HUMAN RELATIONS? Because the problem –centered curriculum is centered in the needs of children living in social groups in school and is founded upon the belief that children learn best when they feel the need to learn and when their needs are being met Why do we say that problem-centered curriculum is important in human relations?
  26. 26. SELF-CHECK 1. Activities are chosen based on the developmental growth of learners. 2. The teacher’s focus is that all children gets perfect in the test. 3. The teacher excuses the learner from the test because a typhoon hit their area. 4. Only the best can succeed. 5. School mean “survival for the fittest.”