Housekeeping• Start weekly blog (please complete before Monday classes. Also comment on other blogs. Blogs linked in Google site).• Homework this weekend.• Try to finish your wiki the week after your topic.• Basic web design training: Friday 2/1 @ 12:30 (bring things for your website…pictures, CV, etc.)• Presentations today: Karen, Jena, & Dan
Questions• Types of CALL tools• How do students/teachers use these resources and in what contexts?• Defining “evaluation”• Four approaches to evaluation• Challenge for class
Types of CALL tools• Early in the history of CALL most software focused on learner-centered, self-contained software (for learning on your own).• Software usually in media format, designed around teaching/reinforcing a language skill or skills.• 90s and beyond: tools for teachers to develop teaching materials.• More recently: Using 2.0 apps/tools for collaborative learning.
Types of CALL tools• Dedicated CALL software (aka tutorial CALL programs or dedicated CALL, usually paid)• Dedicated CALL websites (usually free)• Tools dedicated to teaching materials• Tools that can be adapted for teaching (social networking, CMC, multimedia).
CALL Dedicated Courseware• Tell Me More• Longman English Interactive• WordSmart (vocabulary)• Vocaboly (vocabulary, paid and free versions)
CALL Dedicated websites• Randall’s Cyber Learning Lab• ESL Independent Study Lab (from Lewis & Clark)• Compleat Lexical Tutor• Chemnitz Internet Grammar• Duolingo (free, crowdsourced)• Livemocha (free & paid, courses with social networking)• Busuu (freemium)
Tools/applications to adapt to teaching• Collaborative tasks (Google docs, wikis)• Communities (CMC, Second Life)• Multi-media tools (Prezi, slideshare, podcasting, screen capture, animators, audio/video recording, flash games)• Language input/exposure (Youtube, corpora, archive.org, news sites, enthusiast press).
How do students use these tools & resources?• Interact with other learners, native speakers,• Comprehension: with aided/scaffolded input or not• Production: organization/accuracy• Production: publish• Explore language
How do teachers use these resources?• Elicit participation and communication.• Guide learners to engage in meaningful tasks and collaboration.• Language practice with integrated skills.• Assessment (grading, record keeping, feedback, remediation)• Present and reinforce content.• Help achieve course goals?
Learning contexts for CALL• Computer lab: CALL as supplemental, supervised practice for classroom.• Self-learning: CALL as sole/primary tutor for independent learner• In-class technologies (presentation, CMC, multi-media)• Hybrid learning: CALL used in conjunction with in-class learning.
What does evaluation in CALL mean?Hubbard (2011, p. 408):1. Investigating a piece of CALL courseware/website to judge its appropriateness for a given language learning setting.2. Identifying ways it may be effectively implemented in that setting.3. Assessing its degree of success and determining whether to continue use or to make adjustments in implementation for future use.
Approaches to evaluation1. Checklists2. Methodological frameworks3. SLA-based approaches4. Action research
Checklists• Good starting place for identifying important factors. Needs tailoring to specific contexts/purposes• Large project checklists: NFLRC, ICT4LT• Son’s (2005) model for evaluating websites… – Seven sets of criteria – Checklist w/ 15 criteria
Methodological frameworks• Description (not judgment) of CALL materials and how they relate to larger class goals/considerations (Hubbard, 1996):• Approach – underlying theories assumed• Design – consistent with approach, syllabus, objectives of the method• Procedure – techniques/activities to realize the design.
Example: CALICO journal software review1. Technological features: installation, reliability, user interface, etc.2. Activities (Procedure): instruction, collaborative, linguistic focus, linguistic skills.3. Teacher fit (Approach): appropriate to theories of language learning, SLA4. Learner fit (Design): linguistic level, feedback/correction, learning styles & strategies
SLA-based approaches• Evaluate CALL applications (or tasks) based on SLA models of language learning.• Six criteria from Chapelle (2001), Chapelle & Jamieson (2010), & Jamieson, Chapelle, & Preiss (2005):1. Language learning potential: The degree of opportunity present for beneficial focus on form.2. Learner fit: The amount of opportunity for engagement with language under appropriate conditions given learner characteristics.
SLA criteria for CALL evaluation3. Meaning focus: The extent to which learners’ attention is directed toward the meaning of the language.4. Authenticity: The degree of correspondence between the learning activity and target language activities of interest to learners out of the classroom5. Positive Impact: The positive effects of the CALL activity on those who participate in it.6. Practicality: The adequacy of resources to support the use of the CALL activity.
Action Research• Classroom-based research• Can measure learners’ attitudes/experience with using a particular technology• Learning outcomes (compare technologies or traditional methods)• Simple designs, short time periods, can give more informed answers to evaluation criteria.
Challenge (2 steps)• While we have evaluation tools for language learning resources (courseware, websites, applications), we do not have as well of an established system for evaluating non- language-specific tools and resources.• What general criteria would you include for evaluating these types of resources?
Step 1 (groups)• Form a group of 3-4.• Choose an area of language learning: speaking, listening, reading, writing, integrated skills, content-based instruction, TBLT.• Develop a list of important criteria for evaluating non-LL dedicated resources for this area. Use handouts and the chapter to inform your ideas.• You can focus on a specific type of application.• Create a brief checklist/framework/rubric
Step 2• Individually, choose an application/resource to evaluate using your criteria.• You can choose one of the relevant resources mentioned in class today, from our textbook, or from the Diigo group.• Further elaborate your criteria as necessary, evaluate the resource, and publish your evaluation on your blog by the weekend.