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Module 11
 

Module 11

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    Module 11 Module 11 Presentation Transcript

    • 2 Assessing Student Learning 1 40011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Dr. Jennifer Irwin EDU 620: Module 11 Chapters 13 & 14
    • Ah….the joy of0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 report cards! 1 2 4
    • Assessing Student Learning0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • In this module, we will take a look at the 2 ways in which student learning (and our 1 teaching) is measured 4 • First, think about this question: • Is there a difference between what you taught and what the students learned? – (they are not necessarily the same thing, right?)
    • What is Assessment ?0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • Why do we have to “assess” student learning? 1 2 • How do you (or would you) assess your students? 4 • What kinds of assessments do you use? – Multiple-choice? – Essay? – Performance assessment? – Something else?
    • What is Assessment ? • Assessment: a measure of the degree to0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 which instructional objectives have been 2 attained 1 • Objectives: statements of skills or concepts 4 that students should master after a given amount of time • Backwards Planning: looking at the objectives, then writing lesson plans to help students master the objectives using a variety of instructional strategies – in other words ……..
    • What is Assessment ? • Beginning with0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 The “what” you the “end” in want students to know 2 (objectives) mind. 1 The “how” they will 4 show you they have learned (assessment) • Effective teaching begins and ends with learning Your instructional objectives! strategies to help them meet the objectives
    • Bloom’s Taxonomy • Created in 1956 by Benjamin Bloom (and0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 friends), this taxonomy orders objectives 2 from simple learning tasks to more complex 1 ones 4 • It has been VERY influential in teaching • Keep in mind that there is a time and place for each of the levels but that teachers should encourage higher-level thinking by using the upper taxonomy levels. • See chapter 13 for examples of each level
    • Bloom’s Taxonomy0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 1 2 4The man, the myth, the legend 
    • Evaluation • Another word for assessment is Evaluation0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 – The ongoing process of measuring student performance 2 • Why is evaluation important? 1 – It gives information (helps guide teachers to make instructional decisions) 4 – Helps students understand their own strengths and weaknesses – Provides feedback – Can and should be reciprocal • i.e. students should be given the opportunity to “evaluate” their teachers ……
    • • If your school doesn’t collect students evaluations of their teachers, you0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 should consider 2 asking for informal (and anonymous) 1 feedback from your 4 students.• It is a GREAT way to improve your teaching!
    • Evaluation • The 2 main types of evaluation are:0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 – Formative 2 • Evaluation that takes place during the course of 1 instruction (not always graded) 4 • Examples: observations, quizzes, journal writing, exit tickets – Summative • Evaluation that takes place at the end of a unit of study or course (usually graded) • Examples: tests, projects, papers
    • Test Construction • When creating tests to assess students (whether0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 they are formative or summative), you will need to 2 consider the following: 1 • Will the test: – have open-ended questions (multiple answers) or 4 closed-ended questions (only one answer)? – be announced or unannounced? (are there benefits to “pop” quizzes?) – be open-book or closed-book? – be take-home or in-class? – have recognition or recall questions? (see next slide)
    • Recognition v. Recall0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • What are the capitals of the following 2 countries? 1 – Denmark -Poland 4 – Austria -the Netherlands – Ireland -Portugal – Finland -Northern Ireland – Belgium -Spain – Greece
    • Recognition v. Recall0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • Would it help if I gave you a list of 2 choices? – Athens -Helsinki 1 4 – Amsterdam -Lisbon – Belfast -Madrid – Brussels -Vienna – Copenhagen -Warsaw – Dublin
    • Recognition v. Recall0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • In the first slide, you were being asked to 2 “recall” the capitals (which you may or may 1 not have known) 4 • In the second slide, you were being asked to “recognize” them from a list (which should have been much easier!) – So which kind of questions are better? – Is there a time and place for both types?
    • Standardized Tests0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • Standardized tests are commercially 2 prepared for nationwide use and designed to 1 provide accurate and meaningful 4 information on students’ performance relative to others of the same age or grade • Two types – Criterion-referenced – Norm-referenced
    • Criterion-Referenced Tests • Unlike norm-referenced tests, these tests0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 measure a student’s performance not against a 2 set of norms but rather against a body of 1 knowledge 4 • Students are tested on a predetermined set of criteria, and their mastery of that criteria is scored • Example: the High School Assessments (HSAs) in Maryland: Algebra, Biology, Government, English (see slide on high-stakes assessment)
    • Norm-Referenced Tests0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • These are your typical standardized tests 2 • Results indicate relative achievement of a person 1 4 compared to others (norms) • Example: the SATs • There are several ways to report scores on standardized tests . . .
    • Ways to Report Scores • Grade equivalents0011 0010 – Reported as grade & month 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 (7-1 means 7th grade, 1st month) 2 It appears that the kids in this 1 private school in Kentucky are 2 4 years or more above grade level. Caution: These scores do not reflect appropriate grade placement (i.e. a 5th grader who scores 7-1 should not be placed in the 7th grade)
    • Ways to Report Scores • Percentiles0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 – Score is within 1 to 100%tile (a score of 68% means that you performed better than 68% of the people 2 who took the test while 32% did better than you) 1 4
    • Ways to Report Scores0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • Stanines – Reported as 1 to 9 2 – 1-3 = below average – 4-6 = average 1 4 – 7-9 = above average
    • Ways to Report Scores • Standard score (normal distribution)0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • This is the ‘ol Bell Curve (think IQ) 1 2 4 Most people fall within 1 The mean/ standard deviation of the mean average
    • Characteristics of Good Assessment0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • Good tests have these RSVP characteristics: 2 – Reliability – Standardization 1 4 – Validity – Practicality
    • Validity v. Reliability0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • These 2 terms are often confused, but they are 2 very important in choosing and evaluating 1 standardized tests • Validity: the extent to which an assessment 4 technique measures what it is intended to measure • Reliability: the extent to which as assessment technique yields consistent results for each student • Think of it this way …..
    • Validity v. Reliability • Think of stepping onto a0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 bathroom scale 2 • On Monday, the scale reads 150 lbs. 1 • On Tuesday, the scale 4 reads 149 lbs. • On Wednesday, the scale reads 150 lbs. • This is a pretty reliable scale
    • Validity v. Reliability0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • Now, think about the time when 2 you took your driver’s test 1 • Imagine that instead of driving on a course and taking a written test 4 you were asked to to walk on your hands for 50 ft. and create an Excel spreadsheet! • This would not be a valid way to test your driving skills!
    • Validity v. Reliability0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • Validity becomes as issue when students are asked to demonstrate their understanding of 2 science (for example) by writing an essay 1 • Perhaps the student knows science quite well but 4 is just unable to express herself effectively in writing • Would this test be a science test or a writing test?
    • Standardization & Practicality0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • Standardization: the extent to which 2 assessment tasks and procedures are similar 1 for all students 4 – This is especially important when students’ tests results are being compared to other students (normed) • Practicality: the extent to which an assessment technique is easy and inexpensive to use
    • No discussion of assessment would be complete without mentioning “high- stakes” testing!0100 10110011 0010 1010 1101 0001 1 2 4
    • High-Stakes Assessment0011 Remember the criterion-referenced 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 tests mentioned earlier, the HSAs? 2 • In Maryland, all students (starting with the class of 2009) must 1 4 pass these tests in order to graduate • They are considered a form of “high-stakes” testing…..a lot is riding on them!
    • High-Stakes Assessment • Tests 1101 0001 stem from0011 0010 1010 like these 0100 1011 the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and its demand for increased accountability (usually done through testing) 2 • “High-stakes” testing also refers to schools needing to 1 make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) under NCLB. 4 Much is riding on the outcome of these tests including funding and staffing. • What is your opinion of tests like these? • Is there another way to ensure high-quality teaching in all schools?
    • The end …. • This is the end of our time together0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 studying Educational Psychology! 2 • I hope that you have enjoyed the class and 1 that you have gained a better understanding 4 of students and the best ways to teach them. • I wish you all the best in your teaching careers!!