Cognitive, Language, and Literacy Development Dr. Jennifer Irwin EDU 620: Module 2 Chapter 2
Types of Development• In the next two modules, we will be exploring 4 types of development: – Module 2: • Cognitive • Language & Literacy – Module 3: • Moral • Social & Emotional
Types of Development• Throughout the next two modules, please keep in mind these basic principles of development:2. Development proceeds in a somewhat orderly and predictable pattern (although this has been debated)3. Different children develop at different rates4. Periods of relatively rapid growth (spurts) may appear between periods of slower growth (plateaus)5. Developments is continually affected by both nature (heredity) and nurture (environment)
Please note:• Important vocabulary from the chapter (which is listed on the overview for this module) will be underlined throughout this presentation.• Also, be sure you have printed the “Student Development Study Guide” and be ready to add information from modules 2 and 3.
Piaget’s Stages of CognitiveDevelopment• Sensorimotor (0-2 years)• Preoperational (2-7 years)• Concrete Operational (7-11 years)• Formal Operational (11 and older)
Piaget’s Basic Assumptions:• Children: – Are active and motivated learners – Construct knowledge from their experiences – Learn through assimilation & accommodation• Also: – Interactions with one’s physical & social environments are essential for development – Equilibration promotes progression toward more complex thought – Cognitive development depends to some degree on neurological development
Sensorimotor stage• Sensorimotor (0-2 years) Infants uses senses to learn about surroundings Have an innate tendency or natural curiosity to interact with the environment Use reflexes, then schemata and later intentional decision making Lack object permanence until approx. 11 months Begin using symbols to represent objects in the environment (baby sign language is good to begin in this stage)
Sensorimotor children enjoy … • Learning through movement & senses (especially taste) • Exploring surroundings • Interacting with environment • Sensory stimulation Thi (lights, sounds, s is A ndr colors, shapes, etc.) ew bein gV • Putting everything in ER Ys the mouth! ens orim oto r!
Preoperational stage2. Preoperational (2-7 years) Preschoolers continue to use symbols & expand recognition of symbols and vocabulary Language and conceptual thinking begins to take off Lack conservation because of centration Egocentric
Characteristics of the Preoperational stage • Being the center of attention • Opportunities to be inventive • Beginning problem solving This is Sa creative mantha, very gingerb proud o read ho f her u se !
Concrete Operational stage• Concrete Operational (7-11 years) Elementary-aged students begin more logically thought processes No longer lack conservation Can do activities requiring seriation, transitivity, reversability, class inclusion and inferred reality
Concrete operational students enjoy… • Exercising their logical minds • Opportunities to be inventive and forward thinking • “What if…” scenarios • History, science, mathematics (identifying relationships and patterns)
Formal Operational stage4. Formal Operational (11 and older) Middle-school to adult students think more abstractly, hypothetically and logically Increase transitivity skills Think metacognitively or more reflectively on their own “style of thinking” or “way of learning”
Formal operational students enjoy… • Experiments • Riddles, puns, play on words • Problem solving or open-ended assignments • Self-reflection
Pause, practice, and applyWho do you know who fits into each of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development? Also, explain which stage you fit in.
Vygotsky & CognitiveDevelopmentKey ideas: – Sign systems – Private speech – Scaffolding – Zone of proximal development
Vygotsky’s Basic Assumptions:• Complex mental processes begin as social processes that children gradually internalize and use independently (internalization)• Thought & language become increasingly interdependent (private speech)• Both informally and formally, adults convey their culture’s interpretations of the world (socialization)
Vygotsky’s Basic Assumptions: (cont.)• Challenging tasks promote maximum cognitive growth• Children perform more challenging tasks when assisted by more advanced individuals (zone of proximal development; scaffolding)
Pause, practice, and apply Describe a time where the zone of proximal development helped you learn a new skill or concept?Where have you used scaffolding or seen scaffolding used? (and, of course, we are not talking about construction scaffolding!)
Language & Literacy Development• The basis for successful reading and writing begins way before children enter school! – Early oral language experiences are critical (e.g. reading and talking with children) – Emergent Literacy is the term for early reading and writing behaviors like recognizing a STOP sign and scribbling
Pause, practice, and apply What are some ways that parents and caregivers can boost a young child’s literacy development?
And now, onto module 3 for more areas ofdevelopment …..
Erikson’s Stages ofPsychosocial Development1. Trust vs. Mistrust (0 - 18 months) Infant’s needs need to be satisfied, if not, infant develops mistrust for caregivers & others2. Autonomy vs. Doubt (18 months – 2 years) Child has natural desire to be independent and do things for themselves. If not, child feels powerless, restricted and doubtful of their ability3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3 – 6 years) Child has natural curiosity to seek, explore and understand the world around them. If not, child feels guilty about natural urges to explore, be curious, etc.4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6 – 12 years) Child desires to be successful and industrious, if not, child has feelings of inadequacy
Erikson’s Stages of PsychosocialDevelopment (cont.) 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18 years) Person is discovering themselves educationally, occupationally, emotionally, socially, and sexually. If not, person is confused about their place or role in society 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young adulthood) Person establishes growth relationships with others, if not, person goes into isolation to escape relationship failures 7. Generativity vs. Self-Absorption (Middle adulthood) Person has interest in guiding others and contributing to the greater good of society. If not, person may feel stagnate & lead to self-absorption. 8. Integrity vs. Despair (Late adulthood) Person reflects on life and accepts life’s accomplishments, failures, and choices. If not, regret leads to despair.
Pause, practice, and applyWho do you know who fits into each of one of Erickson’s stages of psychosocial development? Where do you fit in?
Moral Development• For moral development, we will learn about Kohlberg’s stages as well as Piaget’s (yes, he had a theory of moral development too … busy guy!)
First, think about this:• How do we learn what is morally right or wrong?• Do our morals change over time? – If yes, how or why do our morals change?
Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development Heteronomous (Young stage) Rules are automatic and inflexible Autonomous (Older stage; 10+ years) Rules are changeable and situation dependent
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning• Refer to chapter 2 for a description of each stage, but before you do ask yourself what you would do if you were This is Kohlberg, not Heinz “Heinz” …
The Heinz Dilemma (what Kohlberg used todevelop his theory) A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick womans husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and Im going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the mans store to steal the drug for his wife. Should Heinz have broken into the laboratory to steal the drug for his wife? Why or why not?
Pause, practice, and apply In which stage of Kohlberg’s Moral Reasoning are you? Which stage is your best friend? Can you think of a time where you witnessed heteronomous-type thinking/moral development?
For more clarification oradditional information,review chapter 2, ask aclassmate or contact theinstructorAlso, I hope you’re thinkingof some great ideas for yourReal Me! Project!