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Chapter.1

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Chapter.1

  1. 1. Chapter 1Introduction to Educational Research
  2. 2. Purpose of Chapter 1 To provide an overview of educational research and introduce you to some important terms and concepts.Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  3. 3. Why Study Educational Research? To become "research literate." Because we live in a society thats driven by research. To improve your critical thinking skills. To learn how to read and critically evaluate published research. To learn how to design and conduct research in case the need arises one day.Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  4. 4. Areas of Educational Research There are many areas in educational research. There are 12 major divisions and many special interest groups in our largest Association (see table 1.1 in your textbook).Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  5. 5. General Kinds of Research There are five general kinds of research: • basic research • applied research • evaluation research • action research • orientational researchEducational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  6. 6. Basic and Applied Research Basic research is aimed at generating fundamental knowledge about natural processes. Applied research is focused on practical questions; goal is to provide relatively immediate solutions. Basic and applied research can be viewed as two endpoints on a research continuum. Basic......................Mixed.......................AppliedEducational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  7. 7. Evaluation Research Evaluation: determining the worth, merit, or quality of an evaluation object.Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  8. 8. Evaluation traditionally classified according to purpose: Formative evaluation (purpose of program improvement) Summative evaluation (purpose of making summary judgments to continue or discontinue program)Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  9. 9. Evaluation also classified into 5 “newer” types: Needs assessment (Is there a need for a program?) Theory assessment (Is it well conceptualized?) Implementation assessment (Was program implemented properly?) Impact assessment (Did program have impact?) Efficiency assessment (Is program cost effective?)Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  10. 10. Action Research Focuses on solving practitioner’s local problems. Conducted by practitioners. It’s a state of mind; teacher takes on research attitude, constantly testing new ideas.Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  11. 11. Orientational Research Done for purpose of advancing an ideological position Focused on inequality and discrimination Class stratification Gender stratification Ethnic and racial stratification Sexual orientation stratification International inequalitiesEducational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  12. 12. Sources of Knowledge How do people learn about the world around them and gain knowledge?Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  13. 13. Sources of Knowledge (con’t)1. Experience Knowledge comes from experience. Historically, this idea is called empiricismEducational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  14. 14. Sources of Knowledge (con’t)2. Reasoning Rationalism is idea that original knowledge comes from reasoning.Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  15. 15. Two Main Forms of Reasoning Deductive reasoning (i.e., process of drawing a conclusion that is necessarily true if the premises are true). Inductive reasoning (i.e., process of drawing a conclusion that is “probably” true). The “problem of induction” is that future might not resemble the present.Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  16. 16. The Scientific Approach to Knowledge GenerationScience is an approach for generation of knowledge. Relies on empiricism (collection of data) and rationalism (use of reasoning and theory construction and testing).Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  17. 17. Dynamics of Science Science is broadly progressive. Science is rational. Science is creative. Science is dynamic. Science is open. Science is "Critical." Science is never-ending.Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  18. 18. Table 1.3 Summary of Common Assumptions Made by Educational ResearchersEducational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  19. 19. Scientific MethodsThe confirmatory or deductive method: 1. State the hypothesis (based on theory or research literature), & deduce what must be observed if hypothesis is true. 2. Collect data to test the hypothesis. 3. Make a decision to tentatively accept or reject the hypothesis.Confirmatory method is commonly used by quantitative researchers.Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  20. 20. The Exploratory or Inductive Method 1. Observe the world in all of its particulars. 2. Search for patterns. 3. Make a descriptive conclusion or generalization. Exploratory method is commonly used by qualitative researchers.Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  21. 21. The Exploratory or Inductive Method (con’t) Virtually any application of science includes use of both confirmatory/deductive and exploratory/inductive approaches. Exploratory or inductive method is “bottom up” method for generating theories and hypotheses. Confirmatory or deductive method is “top down” method for testing theories and hypotheses.Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  22. 22. Figure 1.1 The Research WheelEducational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  23. 23. Theory Most simply means "explanation." Explains "How" and "Why" something operates as it does. Some theories are formal and “grand” Some theories are less formal and "smaller" Key criteria to use in evaluating a theory are in Table 1.4.Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  24. 24. The Principle of Evidence Empirical research provides evidence, NOT proof. Research conclusions are tentative and probabilistic. Evidence increases when finding is replicated. Remember: Do not draw firm conclusion from a single study.Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research
  25. 25. Objectives of Educational Research Exploration. Description. Explanation. Prediction. Influence/Control.Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research

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