Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Solution Validation & Assessments - A practical Approach
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Solution Validation & Assessments - A practical Approach

4,437
views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business

5 Comments
11 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,437
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
5
Likes
11
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. BA Activities & Techniques: Solution Validation & Assessment
  • 2. BA Activities & Techniques: Solution Validation & Assessment Julen C Mohanty Citicorp Services India Ltd
  • 3. DISCLAIMERS Any views or opinions showcased in this presentation are solely those of the author and may not necessarily represent those of the Citigroup.This document is meant for use of Business Analyst World orit’s members. Has to be used within Business Analyst World or it’s members and not to be forwarded to anyone outside Business Analyst World or it’s members.
  • 4. INDEX  Solution Assessment & Validation - Fundamentals  Importance of Solution Assessment & Validation in CMMI  Tasks by BA in Solution Assessment & Validation  Activities Done By BA in Assessment & validation  BA in Post production deployment  BABoK Fundamentals  Actual tasks to be done  Industry best Practices activities
  • 5. Learning Objectives:Deciding on a Solution that best fits the businessValidating the Solution to add value to the businessTesting, Implementing & Communicating Solution to the respective stakeholders
  • 6. Knowledge Areas - BABoK Business Analysis Planning & Monitoring Solution Enterprise Requirements Assessment & Elicitation Analysis Management & Validation Communication Requirement Analysis Underlying Competencies Start- Initi- Concept Func Tech Design Build / Test Deploy up ation Design Design
  • 7. Solution Assessment & Validation - BABoK Stakeholder Solution Identified Mitigating Concerns Scope Defects Actions Assess Proposed Allocate Solution Requirements Organization Assessment of Requirements Assumptions & Readiness proposed Constraints Assessment Solution Assess Define Organization Transitions Requirements Transitions Readiness Requirements Requirements [Allocated] Solution Solution Options Evaluate Validate Solution Solution SolutionSolution Performance Enterprise Solution Performance Validation Metrics Architecture Performance Assessment Assessment Start- Initi- Concept Func Tech Design Build / Test Deploy up ation Design Design
  • 8. Solution Assessment & Validation Software "Are we building the product right”. Assessment The software should conform to its specification. Software "Are we building the right product”. Validation The software should do what the user really requires. Business Analyst is most Knowledgeable Team Member about Business Requirements, the Environment, can best Assess the impact of the Proposed Solution to the Environment BA Can best assess impact of change on workers, since BA Observed/ Analyzed Current Work Environment. BA Assists with Implementation Plan when Project Includes (a) Business Worker Training, (b) Conversion of Existing Info, (c) Creation of New Employee Procedure Manuals, (d) User Acceptance Testing of Software/Hardware Component of Solution.
  • 9. Importance of Solution Assessment & Validation in CMMI Requirements Development Alternative Solutions Product Requirements Technical Components Product Product Development Customer Solution Integration Requirements Product Components, Work Products Assessment & Validation Report Assessment Validation Customer Needs
  • 10. Tasks by BA in Solution Assessment & Validation (1) Develop Alternate Solutions; (2) Evaluate Technology Options; (3) Facilitate the Selection of Solution; (4) Ensure Usability of Solution; (5) Support QA Process; (6) Support Implementation of Solution; (7) Communicate Solution Impacts; (8) Post Implementation Review / Assessment
  • 11. Solution Assessment - BABoK Assumptions & Requirements [Prioritized & Solution Options Constraints Approved] Assess Proposed Solution Solution Selection Assessment of proposed Solution Solution Design Start- Initi- Concept Func Tech Design Build / Test Deploy up ation Design Design
  • 12. Solution Assessment 1. Ranking the Solution Options - Should use a set of evaluation criteria to rank the solution options 2. Identifying Additional Solution Capabilities - If the option offers more capabilities than required, you should decide if they provide value now or in the future Major work Should be done by business analysts  Splitting a Large Project into Phases,  Reviewing Technical Design Deliverables,  Help Build Usability into Application Software.
  • 13. Solution Assessment (1) BA Highly Involved in Design Strategy; (2) Tasks include What is actually done to Develop Alternate Solutions? (a) Mapping Design Plan; (b) Help Resolve Automated Processes; (c) Determine how System Interacts with End Users; (3) Technical Team Designer Constructs Software & are Key Drivers of Implementation Process; (4) BA Ensures Requirements are Fulfilled by Technical Design Solution. BA Responsible for in Developing Alternate Solutions (1) Communicating Proposed Design Solution to Stakeholders; (2) Guide Decisions Regarding Tradeoffs that Impact Requirements; (3) Mediate Discuss/ Negotiate Alternative Solutions AFTER Impact to Requirements is Known (4) Help Stakeholders and Technicians Scope Design Phases of Project; BA Works with Tech Team to Evaluate Options Available to Solve Business Problem/ Opportunity. BA is Able to Assess Each Option for its Applicability to Business Area.
  • 14. Solution Assessment Business Recommendations Requirements [Aligned with [Approved, Requirements] Prioritized] Assured Evaluate Technical Compliance with Technology Organization Constraints Options Standards High Level Evaluated Feedback Understanding [Problems/ issues/ of Technology Concerns] Capabilities BA Helps Evaluate Options/ Assess Applicability of each option for Business.
  • 15. Solution Assessment Business Requirements [Approved, Prioritized] RFP/RFQ High Level Facilitate the Understanding Selection of a of Technology Capabilities Solution Ensure the Usability Organizations of the Solution RFP/RFQ Standards Solution must be as Usable as possible. BA Assists Technology Team in Designing Usability into the Solution
  • 16. Solution Assessment Business Requirements [Approved, Prioritized] Usability Requirements Facilitate the Assessment of Solution Solution Usability Usability Test Plan Test Plan Solution must be as Usable as possible. BA Assists Technology Team in Designing Usability into the Solution
  • 17. Solution Assessment• Doesn’t only mean jazzy UI, but must • Does the solution address the have usability, flexibility and accessibility existing risks of the business• Internalization must be considered for • Does the solution create any global applications potential Risk for the• Creating early code, prototyping, or other company various techniques, the graphical user • Address/ create risk for other interface can be utilized for early applications assessment Rich RISK • Address/ create risk for other Customer functions within the Experience applications (if enhanced) 4R Regulation ROI & Compliance • Maximize ROI by using • Need to make sure their software data is  Automation protected.  Environment optimization • No negotiation on regulatory compliance  Reducing dependencies & must be compliant • Depending on the business, • Integration must be done with overall some manual work may be compliance perspective necessary, should be kept. • Different entities within the organization Automating as much as possible will be responsible for regulation and in all phases of the lifecycle compliance but should have independent would reduce operational errors assessment and verification services.
  • 18. Solution Assessment• Doesn’t only mean jazzy UI, but must • Does the solution address the have usability, flexibility and accessibility existing risks of the business• Internalization must be considered for • Does the solution create any global applications potential Risk for the• Creating early code, prototyping, or other company various techniques, the graphical user • Address/ create risk for other interface can be utilized for early applications assessment Rich RISK • Address/ create risk for other Customer functions within the Experience applications (if enhanced) 4R Regulation ROI & Compliance • Maximize ROI by using • Need to make sure their software data is  Automation protected.  Environment optimization • No negotiation on regulatory compliance  Reducing dependencies & must be compliant • Depending on the business, • Integration must be done with overall some manual work may be compliance perspective necessary, should be kept. • Different entities within the organization Automating as much as possible will be responsible for regulation and in all phases of the lifecycle compliance but should have independent would reduce operational errors assessment and verification services.
  • 19. Allocate Requirements - BABoK Requirements [Prioritized & Solution Designed Solution Scope Approved] Allocate Requirements Requirements Management & Communication Solution Selection Requirements [Allocated] Solution Design Start- Initi- Concept Func Tech Design Build / Test Deploy up ation Design Design
  • 20. Allocate Requirements • The requirements are allocated to product functions and product components including objects, people, and processes. • The traceability of requirements to functions, objects, tests, issues, or other entities is documented. • The allocated requirements and functions are the basis for the synthesis of the technical solution. • As internal components are developed, additional interfaces are defined and interface requirements established.Tasks to be done are:  Allocate requirements to functions  Allocate requirements to product components  Allocate design constraints to product components  Document relationships among allocated requirements  Allocate customer requirements to functional partitions, objects, people, or support elements to support the synthesis of solutions  Allocate functional and performance requirements to functions and sub-functions
  • 21. Allocate Requirements * Allocation of User Requirements In this activity, the total User Requirements and Marginal Conditions for the System have to be allocated to the elements of the technical architecture. This allocation of requirements is the basis for the requirements analyses and design steps taking place on the lower levels. It is necessary to observe that the allocation of requirements and Marginal Conditions to the elements of the technical architecture must fulfil the following criteria:  Every requirement must be allocated to at least one element of the technical architecture, ideally exactly to one architecture element.  Each requirement is allocated to the lowest element in the refinement levels which makes it possible to meet the requirement completely. Normally, the total of the requirements have to be allocated to various refinement levels. Technical and organizational specifications that have to be considered within the scope of system generation. Marginal conditions may anticipate or limit design decisions.
  • 22. Allocate Requirements  Provided that a requirement is of general importance to elements, it must be considered within the scope of the allocation which individual architecture elements this requirement really has to fulfil.  The allocation must be realized in such a manner that it will be possible to prove the fulfilment of the requirement by checking the corresponding architecture element.* Allocation of IT Security Requirements to the IT Security Measures With the allocation of the IT security requirements to the IT security measures it must be proven that each IT security requirement is covered by at least one IT security measure & if the specified IT security objective can be reached with the selected security measures. Requirements to functions and sub-functions Ensure that satisfaction of the set of requirements at the lower level will guarantee satisfaction of the higher level requirement.
  • 23. Allocate Requirements Determine how many Construction Phases a Project will Undergo (1) Review User Classes; (2) Review Functions and Features List; (3) Map the Requirements to Design - (a) Functional Requirements; (b) Quality of Service Requirements; (4) Propose Design Phases; (5) Determine Number of Design Phases; (6) Map Requirements to Design Phases; (7) Update Requirements Traceability Matrix: (a) Examples of Traceability Mapping Tools, (b) Tracing Features to Use Cases; (8) Recommend Improvements for Non-Automated Processes
  • 24. Assess Organization Readiness Enterprise Stakeholder Solution Designed Solution Scope Architecture Concerns Assess Organization Readiness Organizational Readiness Define Transitions Assessment Requirements Start- Initi- Concept Func Tech Design Build / Test Deploy up ation Design Design
  • 25. Assess Organization ReadinessExperts estimate that 50% of all change efforts fail because leaders do not sufficiently assess organizational readiness for change. To assess whether the organization is ready to make effective use of the solution. The internal ability and willingness to move in a new direction.  Ability - accessing new skill sets necessary to successfully implement a change.  Willingness - desire of the organization and its employees to change. Assessing organizational readiness will identify any major challenges that could delay or prevent your new program’s successful start-up. Organizational strengths can be leveraged to assist in program development and acceptance.
  • 26. Assess Organization Readiness Key concepts to consider when assessing the organizational readiness are: 1. Cultural Assessment 2. Operational or Technical Assessment 3. Stakeholder Impact Analysis To identify impacts the business analyst should understand the Solution [Designed] in order to communicate the effect a new solution will have on an organization The output of an Organizational Readiness Assessment document describes whether stakeholders & the organization are prepared to accept the change associated with a solution and are able to use it effectively
  • 27. Assess Organization Readiness Identify the Anticipated or Desired Change - Clearly reiterate the desired change - Develop a short paragraph that specifically describes the action or program that the organization is considering. This may seem rather basic, it will assure that the stakeholders see the same vision. Determine Current State of the Organization in Relation to the Desired Change Significant Minimal Major Substantial Full Changes Changes Barrier Barrier Support Needed Needed Alignment With Organizational Vision & Mission Alignment With Strategic plan Alignment with organizational value & culture Resource Availability Decision Maker Interest Support for the Initiative Stakeholder Program Perception Stakeholder Program Education Internal Factors (Skills, Strength, Weakness) External Factor (Opportunity, Challenges)
  • 28. Assess Organization Readiness - Force Field Analysis Current Desired State State Pushing/ Driving Forces Pulling/ Restraining Forces Driving Force 1 Restraining Force 1 Driving Force 2 Restraining Force 2 Driving Force 3 Restraining Force 3
  • 29. Assess Organization Readiness - Force Field Analysis Managers Unhappy with 1 Eliminates Operational Error clerical work 1 Relative Forces Strength ImplementingRelative Forces Strength Faster Execution of Admin Requires Training of More 1 Works a HR system people 2 Enables employees Online Documentation to self manage Some activity costs shift to 3 Eliminates Paper work their personal high paid staff 1 information such as Payroll Deductions, Reduces Need of Clerical Cost of eliminating clerical 2 Staff Benefit staff 3 participation Increases Control / auditing 3 Capabilities Start-up costs 1 TOTAL = 10 TOTAL = 8 force field analysis helps you: Decide if you have the right support for the change initiative Identify what obstacles are standing in your way Find ways to reduce or marginalize those obstacles
  • 30. Define Transitions Requirements Organizational Requirements Solution Solution Readiness [ Stated ] Deployed Designed Assessment Define Transitions Requirements Prioritize Requirements Verify Transitions Requirements Requirements Requirements Management & Communication Start- Initi- Concept Func Tech Design Build / Test Deploy up ation Design Design
  • 31. Define Transitions Requirements To define requirements for capabilities needed to transition from the existing to the new solution. Transition Requirements define characteristics that a solution must have in order to transition from the current state to the desired future state - A solution is implemented within an enterprise in order to enhance - Replace an existing solution. During the transition period (the time when both the old and new solutions are operational) - The enterprise may need to operate both solutions in parallel, - Move information between the new and old solution, - Conduct training to enable stakeholders to effectively operate the new solution - Retain All data in old system in new system
  • 32. Define Transitions Requirements Activities done by in this phase are: Identify project activities to be completed before transition can start Conduct skill gap analysis against all IS staff Determine actual training needed, based on gap analysis Develop training plans • Identify necessary training courses • Schedule classes • Identify necessary knowledge to transfer activities • Determine measurable tasks to validate that knowledge transfer is acceptable Stakeholder Analysis for all Transition RequirementsReference : http://www.batimes.com/images/stories/nov15ewan1.jpg
  • 33. Solution Validation - BABOK Requirements Solution [Prioritized & Validated] Constructed Validate Solution Solution Validation Identified Defects Mitigating Actions Assessment Evaluate Solution Solution Performance Implementation Start- Initi- Concept Func Tech Design Build / Test Deploy up ation Design Design
  • 34. Solution Validation Validate that a solution meets the business need and determine the most appropriate response to identified defects Solution validation is required to ensure that a delivered solution meets the business needs on an ongoing basis. Problems that are identified through solution validation will be reported and prioritized for resolution. BA will be able to help the team determine the most appropriate action The documented act of proving that any procedure, process, equipment, material, activity or system actually leads to the expected results. Action of proving, that any procedure, process, equipment, material, activity, or system actually leads to the expected results.
  • 35. Solution Validation - Accuracy VS Precision What you would like to see!Poor accuracy Poor precisionGood precision Good accuracyconfirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence that softwarespecifications conform to user needs and intended uses, and that the particularrequirements implemented through software can be consistently fulfilled.
  • 36. Solution Validation - Purpose of Validation Fewer Rejects Customer Reduced Satisfaction CostEffective handling Reduction of Maximize of Requirements Quality Costs Yield Fewer Retest Fewer Rework Fewer Wastage & Scrap
  • 37. Solution Validation General Task to be considered are  Audits, Reviews, and Inspection  Analytic Techniques  Dynamic Techniques Techniques to verify the software during its development process  Peer Reviews  Documentation inspections (User sign off on specification)  Traceability of Requirements  Requirements/design/code reading (Prototypes too)  Test witnessing (Unit Test, SIT, UAT, Test Cases Too)  Installation audits Sufficient replication of the testing and challenging of each defined critical Stage of a system, process, etc. that has to be performed to give valid levels of assurance An adequate System of referenced documentation is essential. Flow diagrams and schematics should define the system, process, etc. The critical areas must be highlighted, and the written experimental design defined by a protocol.
  • 38. Solution Validation - QA process V-MODEL Quality Product Delivery Finished New Idea Conform to all Requirements Product for business Use Test Against Feasibility Study Review Test Against User Requirements User Acceptance Test Against System Design System Test Test Against Development Program (UNIT) Test Coding
  • 39. Solution ValidationBA task Quality Assurance Activities (1) Understand Tasks Performed by QA; (2) Be Available to Answer Questions about the Testing of the Solution; (3) Review QA Deliverables (test plans, test cases) to Assure Business risks are mitigated by Thorough Testing; (4) Help Business Stakeholders with User Acceptance Testing, Defect Reporting, and Resolution.
  • 40. Solution Validation  Business SME to do Testing  SIT & UAT People &  Maintains standard process & related docs Can foresee business timelines, helps in Process  Have E2E knowledge of solution for testing getting preparedness Can help in better time to market with domain knowledge Can optimize staffing by maintaining knowledge management Strategic Tools & Business BA Automations Activities  Helps in automating Test cycles  Can maintain Testing data management  Maintains Standard for testing across project  BA can maintain reporting standards for Governance testing cycles  Maintain Governance across Business & testers
  • 41. Evaluate Solution Performance Business Identified Business Identified Requirements Defects Requirements Defects Evaluate Solution Performance Solution performance Assess Capability Assessment Gaps Start- Initi- Concept Func Tech Design Build / Test Deploy up ation Design Design
  • 42. Evaluate Solution Performance To evaluate functioning solutions to 1) understand the value they deliver 2) identify opportunities for improvement. Solution evaluation involves investigating how a solution is actually used after it is deployed, and assessing the effect it has had It may also be referred to as post-implementation assessment when performed immediately following the completion of a project. Key concepts to consider when evaluating a solution performance can include: – Understand Value Delivered by Solution – Validate Solution Metrics – Solution Replacement or Elimination • Ongoing Cost versus Initial Investment • Opportunity Cost • Necessity • Sunk Cost
  • 43. Evaluate Solution Performance - Risk Based Testing The Risk Based Testing (RBT) approach addresses the size & complexity parameters of a regression testing in a methodical manner by: This technique prioritizes the functions to be tested based on their risk Risk = Impact * Probability Prioritize test cases by clearly defining importance of a functionality or feature Impact assessment to identify likelihood of failure. Thus addressing the testability of a requirement Improving testing effectiveness by ensuring testing of all critical functionalities, which are used most often Increasing test case effectiveness by eliminating non-productive test cases Identifying test data need during the planning or requirement gathering phase itself. Pareto Principle (80-20 Rule)
  • 44. Evaluate Solution Performance - 360o Testing Assessment Requirement Prioritization Post Live Analysis Test Plan Coverage Defect Metrics Analysis Test Execution Coverage
  • 45. ASSESSMENT & VALIDATION CYCLE STARTIs Goal Stakeholder AnalysisAttained END PROCESS Validation Validation Set Requirements = Attainable METRIC + Target Value Complete? Functional Delivered Solution Assessment Deployment Delivered Goals = Intended METRIC + Delivered Value ASSESSMENT Function Model Model Concept Design Consistent ?` Solution Solvable?
  • 46. BA should be Involved with Solution Rollout (1) Make Sure Production Rollout Changes are Completed as Smoothly as Possible; (2) Help Training of Business Area Workers on (a) New procedures and Software, (b) Creation of Employee Procedure Manuals, (c) Communication of Change Impacts to Employees/ Customers; (d) Development of Conversion Plans; (e) Assist IT Team in Rollout Strategies to Lessen Negative Impact to Business Area.
  • 47. BA should be Involved Production Implementation (1) Problem Resolution; (2) Adjustments to New Procedures; (3) Managing Change Requests Including (a) New Requirements, (b) Next Phase Issues, (c) Any Other Post Implementation Support Analysis.
  • 48. Thank You julenmohanty@gmail.com www.twitter.com/julenmohanty www.linkedin.com/julenmohanty julenmohanty