Learning Goal NJCCCS: 6.1.12.D.12.d Compare and contrast American public support of thegovernment and military during theVietnamWar with that ofother conflicts. NJCCCS: 6.1.12.D.13.e Explain why the Peace Corps was created and how its role hasevolved over time.
Kennedy Challenges Nixon for thePresidency The Republicansnominated Richard Nixonto run for president andHenry Cabot Lodge, Jr. forvice president in theelection of 1960. The Democrats nominatedJohn F. Kennedy to run forpresident and Lyndon B.Johnson for vice president.
John F. Kennedy Campaigning for the Presidency, 1960.At right is his wife, Jacqueline Kennedy
The Presidential Issues of 1960 John F. Kennedys Catholicismaroused misgivings in theProtestant, Bible Belt South. Kennedy charged that theSoviets, with their nuclearbombs and the Sputniks, hadgained onAmerica in prestigeand power. Nixon was forced to defend thedying administration and claimthatAmericas prestige had notslipped.
Election of 1961 Television played a key rolein the presidential electionas Kennedys personalappeal attracted many. Kennedy won theelection of 1961, gainingsupport in the largeindustrial centers where hehad strong support fromworkers, Catholics, andAfrican Americans.
President John F.Kennedy and HisWife, JacquelineBouvierKennedy. Shownhere leaving theWhite House toattend a series ofinaugural balls inJanuary 1961, theyoung andvibrant firstcouple broughtbeauty, style, andgrace to thepresidency.
Review- Developing HistoricalPerspective What factors help explainthe public’s fascinationwith the Kennedys? Answer:The pressportrayed the Kennedys asa young, attractive,energetic, and stylishcouple; attention to artsand culture; youngchildren; Kennedy’seloquence; television; anadmiring press.
Enter:TheWomen’s Movement The baby boom during the yearsafterWorldWar II caused the roleof women to revert to the typicalrole of a mother and wife. But the majority of the clericaland service work jobs createdafter 1950 were filled by women. Womens new dual role as bothworkers and homemakers raisedurgent questions about familylife and about traditionaldefinitions of gender differences.
The Feminine Mystique Feminist Betty Friedanpublished in 1963 TheFeminine Mystique,helping to launch themodern womensmovement. Friedan spoke to manyeducated women whosupported her indictmentof the boredom of ahousewife.
Kennedys "New Frontier" Spirit President Kennedy, the youngestpresident to take office, assembledone of the youngest cabinets,including his brother RobertKennedy, the Attorney General, whoplanned to reform the priorities ofthe FBI. Kennedys new challenge of a "NewFrontier" quickened patrioticpulses. He proposed the Peace Corps, anarmy of idealistic and mostlyyouthful volunteers to bringAmerican skills to underdevelopedcountries.
Peace Corps The Peace Corps traces its roots and mission to 1960, when then-Sen.John F. Kennedy challenged students at the University of Michigan toserve their country in the cause of peace by living and working indeveloping countries. From that inspiration grew a federal governmentagency devoted to world peace and friendship. Throughout its history, the Peace Corps has adapted and responded tothe issues of the times. In an ever-changing world, Peace CorpsVolunteers have met newchallenges with innovation, creativity, determination, and compassion. Used as a means of countering the stereotype of the “Ugly American”and “Yankee Imperialism”. 1st Director- Sargent Shriver, Kennedy’s brother-in-law
Peace Corps’ Evolution From AIDS education to emergingtechnologies to environmentalpreservation to new market economies,Peace CorpsVolunteers have helpedpeople build better lives for themselves. Their work in villages, towns, and citiesaround the globe represents a legacy ofservice that has become a significantpart of America’s history and positiveimage abroad. This unique heritage continues to inspireand, since 1961, 210,000+ Americanshave served in the Peace Corps, workingin 139 countries and making a differenceevery day.
The New Frontier at Home Southern Democrats andRepublicans despised thepresidents New Frontierplan Kennedy had campaignedon the theme ofrevitalizing the economyafter the recessions of theEisenhower years. To do this, the presidenttried to curb inflation.tax collections from those making over $50,000 per year climbed by 57 percent between 1963 and 1966, whiletax collections from those earning below $50,000 rose 11 percent.
Kennedy vs. the Steel Industry In 1962, he negotiated anoninflationary wageagreement with the steelindustry When the steel industryannounced significantprice increases, promotinginflation, PresidentKennedy erupted in wrath,causing the industry tolower its prices.
The Final Frontier Kennedy rejected the advice ofthose who wished greatergovernment spending andinstead chose to stimulate theeconomy by cutting taxes andputting more money directlyinto private hands. Kennedy also proposed amultibillion-dollar plan to landanAmerican on the moon.
Rumblings in Europe President Kennedy met with Sovietleader Khrushchev at Vienna in June1961. After making numerous threats, theSoviets finally acted. After making numerous threats, theSoviets finally acted. In August 1961, the Soviets began toconstruct the BerlinWall, which wasdesigned to stop the large populationdrain from East Germany toWestGermany through Berlin.
The Berlin Wall, 1961-1989.The wall separating East andWest Berlin stood for nearly30 yrs as a hated symbol ofthe division of Europe intodemocratic and communistcamps. [right] East Germansoldiers stand guard as theconcrete wall is constructed,Nov. 20th, 1961.
Ich Bin Ein Berliner“There are many people in the world who reallydon’t understand, or say they don’t, what is thegreat issue between the free world and theCommunist world. Let them come to Berlin.There are some who say that communism is thewave of the future. Let them come to Berlin. Andthere are some who say in Europe and elsewherewe can work with the Communists. Let themcome to Berlin. And there are even a few whosay that it is true that communism is an evilsystem, but it permits us to make economicprogress. Lass’sie nach Berlin kommen. Let themcome to Berlin.”
Western Europe Western Europe wasprospering after the MarshallPlan aid and the growth of theCommon Market, the free-trade area later called theEuropean Union. Focusing onWestern Europe,Kennedy secured passage ofthe Trade Expansion Act in1962, authorizing tariff cuts ofup to 50% to promote tradewith Common Marketcountries. American policymakers werededicated to an economically andmilitarily united "AtlanticCommunity" with the UnitedStates the dominant partner. President of France, Charles deGaulle, was suspicious of Americanintentions in Europe and in 1963,vetoed British application forCommon Market membership,fearing that the British "specialrelationship" with the UnitedStates would allow the U.S. toindirectly control European affairs.
Foreign Flare-ups and"Flexible Response" In 1960, the African Congoreceived its independencefrom Belgium andimmediately exploded inviolence. The U.N. sent in troopswhile the United Statespaid for it.
Independence of Laos In 1954, Laos gained its independencefrom France and it, too erupted inviolence. Kennedy, avoiding sending troops,sought diplomatic means in the Genevaconference in 1962, which imposed apeace on Laos. Defense Secretary Robert McNamarapushed the strategy of "flexibleresponse" - that is, developing an arrayof military options that could beprecisely matched to the necessities ofthe crisis at hand. President Kennedy increased spendingon conventional military forces.
Review- Summarizing What was the goal of thedoctrine of flexibleresponses? Answer:To allow the U.S.to fight limited warsaround the world whilemaintaining a nuclearbalance of power with thesoviets.
Stepping into theVietnam Quagmire The doctrine of "flexible response"provided a mechanism for aprogressive, and possibly endless,stepping-up of the use of force(Vietnam). In 1961, Kennedy increased the numberof "military advisors" in SouthVietnamin order to help protect Diem from thecommunists long enough to allow himto enact basic social reforms favored bythe Americans. In November 1963, after being fed upwith U.S. economic aid beingembezzled by Diem, the Kennedyencouraged a successful coup and killedDiem.
Closing the gap in Latin America In 1961, President Kennedyextended the American hand offriendship to LatinAmerica withthe Alliance for Progress, calledthe Marshall Plan for LatinAmerica. A primary goal was to help theLatinAmerican countries closethe gap between the rich and thepoor, and thus quiet communistagitation. Results were disappointing asAmerica had few positive impactson LatinAmericas immensesocial problems.
Cuban Confrontations On April 17, 1961, 1,200 exileslanded at Cubas Bay of Pigs. President Kennedy was againstthe direct intervention of theoverthrow of Fidel Castro in Cuba,failing to provide air support forthe exiles. The invasion therefore failed asthe exiles were forced tosurrender. The Bay of Pigs blunder pushedthe Cuban leader further into theSoviet embrace.
Failed Bay ofPigs Invasion,1961.Cubansoldiersdemonstrate abeach gunthey usedagainst abridage of ex-Cubans whofurtivelyinvaded Cubaas agents ofthe UnitedStates.Thisdebacle wasone of severalunsuccessfulAmericanattempts tooverthrowCuban leaderFidelCastro.
Review-Analyzing Effects What were theconsequences of the failedinvasion for the UnitedStates? Answer: Failure to oustCastro, loss of worldprestige, embarrassmentfor JFK, ransom forcaptured commandos.
Cuban Missile Crisis In October 1962, it wasdiscovered that the Soviets weresecretly installing nuclearmissiles in Cuba. Kennedy rejected air forceproposals for a bombing strikeagainst the missile sites. Instead, on October 22, 1962,he ordered a naval "quarantine"ofCuba and demandedimmediate removal of theweapons.
13 Days For a week,Americans waitedwhile Soviet ships approachedthe patrol line established by theU.S. Navy off the island of Cuba. On October 28, Khrushchevagreed to a compromise in whichhe would pull the missiles out ofCuba. The American government alsoagreed to end the quarantineand not invade the island.
Peaceful Coexistence? In late 1963, a pact prohibiting trial nuclear explosions [TheLimitedTest BanTreaty] in the atmosphere was signed. In June 1963, President Kennedy gave a speech at AmericanUniversity,Washington, D.C. encouraging Americans toabandon the negative views of the Soviet Union. He tried to lay the foundations for a realistic policy ofpeaceful coexistence with the Soviet Union.
7 October1963PresidentKennedysigns theLimitedNuclearTestBanTreatyin theTreatyRoom at theWhiteHouse.
The Struggle for Civil Rights During his campaign, JFK hadgained the black vote by statingthat he would pass civil rightslegislation. In 1960, groups of Freedom Ridersspread out across the South to endsegregation in facilities servinginterstate bus passengers. A white mob torched a FreedomRide bus near Anniston, Alabama inMay 1961. When southern officials provedunwilling to stop the violence,federal marshals were dispatchedto protect the freedom riders.Freedom Ride, 1961.Rampaging whitesnear Anniston,Alabama, burned thisbus carrying aninterracial group ofFreedom Riders onMay 14th, 1961.
JFK and MLK Jr. For the most part, the Kennedyfamily and the King family(Martin Luther King, Jr.) had agood relationship. SNCC and other civil rightsgroups inaugurated a VoterEducation Project to register theSouths historically disfranchisedblacks. In the spring of 1963, MartinLuther King, Jr. launched acampaign against discriminationin Birmingham,Alabama, themost segregated big city inAmerica.
March onWashington Civil rights marchers wererepelled by police with attackdogs and high-pressure waterhoses. In shock, President Kennedydelivered a speech to the nationon June 11, 1963 in which hededicated himself to finding asolution to the racial problems. In August 1963, Martin LutherKing, Jr. led 200,000 black andwhite demonstrators on apeaceful "March on Washington"in support of the proposed newcivil rights legislation
Martin Luther King Jr., Addresses the March on Washington, August1963. This was the occasion of King’s famous “I Have a DreamSpeech”, in which he declared, “When the architects of our greatestrepublic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and theDeclaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note towhich every American was to fall heir.This note was a promise that allmen, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed theinalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
Conflicting Press Accounts of the MarchonWashington, 1963
The Killing of Kennedy On November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was shot and killedas he was riding in an open limousine in Dallas,Texas. The alleged gunman was Lee Harvey Oswald. Oswald was shot and killed by self-appointed avenger, JackRuby. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn into office,retaining most of Kennedys cabinet. Kennedy was acclaimed more for the ideals he had spoken andthe spirit he had kindled for the goals he had achieved.
UnansweredQuestions The bizarre chain of events made some people wonder ifOswald was part of a conspiracy. In 1963, the Warren Commission, investigated andconcluded that Oswald had shot the president while actingon his own. Later, in 1979, a reinvestigation concluded that Oswald waspart of a conspiracy. Explanations have ranged from a plot by anti-Castro Cubans,to a Communist-sponsored attack, to a conspiracy by the CIA