Learning Goal NJCCCS: UNIT GOAL: 6.1.12.A.12.a Analyze ideological differences and other factors thatcontributed to the Cold War and to United Statesinvolvement in conflicts intended to contain communism,including the Korean War, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and theVietnam War. 6.1.12.A.12.b Examine constitutional issues involving war powers, as theyrelate to United States military intervention in the KoreanWar, the Vietnam War, and other conflicts.
Postwar EconomicAnxieties During the 1930s, unemploymentand insecurity had pushed up thesuicide rate and decreased themarriage rate. The population growth was alsodeclining as couples had economictroubles. In the initial postwar years, theeconomy struggled; prices elevated33% from 1946-1947 after thewartime price controls wereremoved. An epidemic of strikes swept overthe country in 1946.
Taft-Hartley Act In 1947, the RepublicanCongress passed the Taft-Hartley Act over PresidentTrumans veto. It outlawed the "closed" (all-union) shop, made unions liablefor damages that resulted fromjurisdictional disputes amongthemselves, and required unionleaders to take a noncommunistoath. Taft-Hartley was just one ofseveral obstacles that slowedthe growth of organized labor inthe years following WWII.
Operation Dixie The CIOs "Operation Dixie,"aimed at unionizing southerntextile workers andsteelworkers, failed in 1948 toovercome lingering fears of racialmixing. Congress passed theEmployment Act in 1946 topromote maximumemployment, production, andpurchasing power. It also created a 3-memberCouncil of Economic Advisersto provide the president with thedata and the recommendations tomake that policy a reality.
Servicemen’s ReadjustmentAct of 1944 The ServicemensReadjustment Act of 1944,better known as the GI Billof Rights or the GI Bill,made generous provisionsfor sending the formersolders to school. By raising educational levelsand stimulating theconstruction industry, the GIBill powerfully nurtured thelong-lived economicexpansion that took hold inthe late 1940s.
The Long Economic Boom, 1950-1970 In the 1950s, the American economy entered a twenty-year period oftremendous growth. During the 1950s and 1960s, national income nearly doubled, givingAmericans about 40% of the planets wealth. The post-World War II era transformed the lives of a majority of citizensand molded the agenda of politics and society for at least twogenerations. Prosperity underwrote social mobility; it paved the war for the success ofthe civil rights movement; it funded new welfare programs; and it gaveAmericans the confidence to exercise unprecedented internationalleadership in the Cold War era. The size of the middle class doubled from pre-Great Depression days,including 60% of the population by the mid 1950s. The majority of new jobs created in the postwar era went to women, asthe service sector of the economy dramatically outgrew the old industrialand manufacturing sectors.
The Roots of PostwarEconomy The economic upturn of 1950 wasfueled by massive appropriations forthe Korean War and defensespending. The military budget helpedjumpstart high-technology industriessuch as aerospace, plastics, andelectronics. Cheap energy also fueled theeconomic boom. American and European companiescontrolled the flow of abundantpetroleum from the expanses of theMiddle East, and they kept priceslow.
Gaining Productivity Gains in productivity were enhanced the rising educationallevel for the work force. By 1970, nearly 90% of the school-age population was enrolled ineducational institutions. The work force shifted out of agriculture, which was achievinghigher productivity gains as a result of new, more efficient farmingequipment.
The Smiling Sunbelt In the 30 years after WWII, an average of 30 million peoplechanged residence every year. Families especially felt the strain, as distance divided them. The "Sunbelt", a 15-state area stretching from Virginia throughFlorida and Texas to Arizona and California, increased it populationat a rate nearly double than that of the old industrial zones of theNortheast (the "Frostbelt"). In the 1950s, California alone accounted for 1/5 of the nationspopulation. The modern pioneers came in search of jobs, better climate, andlower taxes. The large amount of federal dollars being given to the Sunbeltstates accounted for much of the Sunbelts prosperity. The industry region of the Ohio Valley (the "Rustbelt") wasespecially hit hard as a result of the loss in funds and population.
The Rush to the Suburbs In all regions, Americas modernwhite migrants moved from the cityto the new suburbs. The FederalHousing Administration (FHA)and Veterans Administration (VA)made home-loan guarantees,making it more economicallyattractive to own a home in thesuburbs rather than to rent anapartment in the city. "White flight" to the suburbs andthe migration of blacks from theSouth left the inner cities, especiallythose in the Northeast and Midwest,to become poverty-stricken. TheFHA often refused blacks homemortgages for private homepurchases, thus limiting blackmobility out of the inner cities.
The Postwar Baby Boom In the decade and a half after1945, the birth rate in theUnited States exploded asthe "baby boom" tookplace. More than 50 million babieswere born by the end of the1950s. By 1973, the birth rates haddropped below the pointnecessary to maintainexisting population figures.
Yalta Bargain February 1945, the Big Three (Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin) met inYalta to discuss the wars end. Final plans were laid for smashing the German lines and shackling thebeaten Axis enemy. Stalin agreed that Poland, with revisedboundaries, should have a representative government based on freeelections-a pledge he soon broke. Bulgaria and Romania were likewiseto have free elections-a pledge also broken. The Big Three also announced plans for fashioning a new internationalpeacekeeping organization-the United Nations. The most controversial decision concerned the Far East. With the atomic bomb not yet tested, Washington analysts expected highAmerican casualties in the assault on Japan. Roosevelt felt that Stalin should enter the Asian war, pin down Japanesetroops in Manchuria and Korea, and lighten American losses. But with Soviet casualties already extremely high, Stalin needed incentiveto join in the Far East.
Yalta Betrayal? Stalin agreed to attack Japan within 3months after the collapse ofGermany. In return, the Soviets werepromised the southern half of SakhalinIsland, lost by Russia to Japan in 1905,and Japans Kurile Islands. The Soviet Union was also grantedcontrol over the railroads of ChinasManchuria and special privileges in thetwo key seaports of that area, Dairenand Port Arthur. These concessions gave Stalin controlover vital industrial centers ofAmericas weakening Chinese ally.
The United States and theSoviet Union The United States terminated vital lend lease aid to a battered USSR in 1945and ignored Moscows plea for a $6 billion reconstruction loan-while approvinga similar loan of $3.75 billion to Britain in 1946. Different visions of the postwar world separated the two superpowers. Stalin aimed above all to guarantee the security of the Soviet Union. He made it clear from the outset of the war that he was determined to havefriendly governments along the Soviet western border. By maintaining a Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern and Central Europe,the USSR could protect itself and consolidate its revolutionary base as theworlds leading communist country. These spheres of influence contradicted President FDRs Wilsonian dream ofan "open world," decolonized, demilitarized, and democratized. Unaccustomed to their great-power roles, the Soviet Union and the UnitedStates provoked each other into a tense, 40-year standoff known as the ColdWar.
Shaping the Postwar World In 1944, the Western Allies met atBretton Woods, New Hampshire andestablished the International MonetaryFund (IMF) to encourage world trade byregulating currency exchange rates. They also founded the InternationalBank for Reconstruction andDevelopment (World Bank) to promoteeconomic growth in war-ravaged andunderdeveloped areas. Unlike after WWI, the United States tookthe lead in creating the importantinternational bodies and supplied mostof their funding after WWII. The Soviets declined to participate.
The United Nations The United Nations Conferenceopened on April 25, 1945. Meetingat the San Francisco War MemorialOpera House, representatives from50 nations made the United Nationscharter. It included the SecurityCouncil, dominated by the Big Fivepowers (the UnitedStates, Britain, theUSSR, France, and China), each ofwhom had the right of veto, and theAssembly, which could be controlledby smaller countries. The Senate overwhelmingly passedthe document on July 28, 1945.
Overriding a Veto Through such arms as the UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific,and Cultural Organization), FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), andWHO (World Health Organization), the U.N. brought benefits to people aroundthe world. In 1946, Bernard Baruch called for a U.N. agency, free from the great-powerveto, with worldwide authority over atomic energy, weapons, and research. The plan quickly fell apart as neither the United States nor the Soviet Unionwanted to give up their nuclear weapons.
Great Hopes for WorldPeace with the UnitedNations, 1947The achievements of the newinternational regime weredramatic. International tradedoubled in the 1950s andagain in the 1960s. Bycentury‟s end, the volume ofglobal commerce was tentimes larger than in 1950.Increased trade fueledpostwar recovery in Europeand Japan and set severalunderdeveloped countries-notablyTaiwan, Singapore, SouthKorea, India, and China- onthe path to modernization andprosperity.
The Problem of Germany At the end of the war, Austria and Germany had been divided into 4military occupation zones, each assigned to one of the Big Four powers(France, Britain, America, and the USSR). As the USSR spread communism to its Eastern zone in Germany and theWestern Allies promoted the idea of a reunited Germany, Germany becamedivided. West Germany eventually became an independent country, and EastGermany became bound the Soviet Union as an independent "satellite"state, shutoff from the Western world by the "iron curtain" of the SovietUnion. Berlin, still occupied by the Four Big powers, was completely surrounded bythe Soviet Occupation Zone. In 1948, following controversies over German currency reform and four-power control, the Soviet Union attempted to starve the Allies out of Berlin bycutting off all rail and highway access to the city. In May 1949, after America had flown in many supplies, the blockade waslifted. In 1949, the governments of East and West Germany were established.
Berlin, 1948. Grateful city residents watch a U.S.airplane fly in much-needed supplies.
Crystalizing the War In 1946, Stalin, seeking oilconcessions, broke an agreement toremove his troops from Iransnorthernmost province. He used the troops to aid a rebelmovement. When Truman protested, Stalinbacked down. In 1947, George F. Kennanformulated the "containmentdoctrine." This concept stated thatRussia, whether tsarist orcommunist, was relentlesslyexpansionary. Kennan argued that the Soviet Unionwas also cautious, and the flow ofSoviet power could be stemmed byfirm and vigilant containment.
The Truman Doctrine President Truman embraced thepolicy in 1947 when he stated thatBritain could no longer bear thefinancial and military burden ofdefending Greece againstcommunist pressures. If Greece fell, Turkey and the restof the eastern Mediterraneanwould collapse to the SovietUnion. On March 12, 1947, PresidentTruman came before Congressand requested support for theTruman Doctrine. He declared that it must be thepolicy of the United States to aidany country that was resistingcommunist aggression.
Where to? 1947As this satiricalview of the TrumanDoctrine shows,not all Americanswere sure wherethe country‟s newforeign policy wastaking them.
Learning Goal NJCCCS: 6.1.12.B.12.a Evaluate the effectiveness of the Marshall Plan andregional alliances in the rebuilding of European nationsin the post World War II period.
The Marshall Plan In 1947, France, Italy, and Germany were all suffering from thehunger and economic chaos caused in that year. Secretary of StateGeorge C. Marshall invited the Europeans to get together and workout a joint plan for their economic recovery. If they did so, then the United States would provide substantialfinancial assistance. Marshall offered the same aid to the Soviet Union and its allies, butthe Soviets refused it. Although quite expensive, legislators passed the plan after realizingthat the United States had to get Europe back on its feet. Within a few years, Europes economy was flourishing. The MarshallPlan led to the eventual creation of the European Community (EC).
U.S. Foreign Aid, Military &Economic, 1945-1954
The MarshallPlan TurnsEnemies IntoFriends.The poster inthis 1950photographfrom Berlinreads: “BerlinRebuilt withHelp from theMarshallPlan”
Learning Goal NJCCCS: 6.1.12.A.12.c Explain how the Arab-Israeli conflict influencedAmerican foreign policy.
Welcome to existence,Israel… Access to Middle Easternoil was crucial to theEuropean recovery programand to the health of the U.S.economy. Despite threatsfrom the Arab nations to cutoff the supply of oil,President Truman officiallyrecognized the state of Israelon May 14, 1948
How did Israel become aNation? With the end of World War II and the discovery of the horrors that hadbefallen European Jewry, the United States supported some changein the status quo in Palestine, which was a British mandate. Initially, the United States pressured the British into allowing 100,000Jewish refugees into Palestine. When the British turned over the case of Palestine to the UnitedNations, a special United Nations Commission was formed. The commission recommended the division of Palestine into separateJewish and Arab states, and the United States actively supported thisrecommendation. On November 30th, 1947, the UN voted to approve the partition ofPalestine into two states -- Jewish and Arab. The Jewish communityof Palestine accepted this proposal, while Arabs of Palestine, as wellas those of the surrounding states rejected it.
Israeli Independence In the months preceding the end of the mandate, civil war broke out betweenthe Jews and the Arabs of Palestine. With the mandate coming to an end, the surrounding Arab states wereexpected to attack, and, by most observers, to emerge victorious. The state department recommended that the United States support someform of UN stewardship. The Jews of Palestine, however, had other plans, and declared, on theafternoon of May 14th, national independence. President Truman decided to give diplomatic recognition to the new state. While the US representative to the UN was informing the world that the USsupported trusteeship, the American government was simultaneouslygranting official recognition to Israel. Israel went on to win the War of Independence.
AmericanMotor of theLatest TypeIn This Russiancartoon, theconqueringTruman usesU.S.moneybags toinduce dollar-hungryEuropeannations to drawthe Americancapitalisticchariot.
America Begins to Rearm The Cold War, the struggle tocontain Soviet communism, was nota war, yet it was not a peace. In 1947, Congress passed theNational Security Act, creating theDepartment of Defense. The department was headed by anew cabinet officer, the secretaryof defense. Under the secretary were thecivilian secretaries of the navy, thearmy, and the air force. The uniformed heads of eachservice were brought together asthe Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The Birth of the CIA The National Security Actalso established theNational Security Council(NSC) to advise thepresident on security mattersand the Central IntelligenceAgency (CIA) to coordinatethe governments foreignfact-gathering.
NATO In 1948, the United States joined theEuropean pact, called the NorthAtlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). American participation strengthenedthe policy of containing the SovietUnion and provided a framework for thereintegration of Germany into theEuropean family. The pact pledged each signed nation toregard an attack on one as an attack onall. The Senate passed the treaty on July21, 1949. The NATO pact marked a dramaticdeparture from American diplomaticconvention, a gigantic boost forEuropean unification, and a significantstep in the militarization of the ColdWar.
Reaching Across theAtlantic inPeacetime, 1948When the United Statesjoined with the WesternEuropean powers in theNorth-AtlanticAlliance, soon to becalled the North-AtlanticTreaty Organization, itovercame its historicisolationism in the wakeof wars. By 1955 formerenemy West Germanywould be admitted toNATO to help defendWestern Europe againstSoviet aggression.
Reconstruction andRevolution in Asia General Douglas MacArthur took control of thedemocratization of Japan. The Japanese people cooperated to an astonishing degree;they saw that good behavior and the adoption of democracywould speed the end of the occupation. In 1946, a MacArthur-dictated constitution was adopted. It renounced militarism and introduced western-styledemocratic government. From 1946-1948, top Japanese "war criminals" were tried inTokyo.
China falls to Communism Although there was muchsuccess in Japan, China wasanother story. In late 1949, theChinese Nationalistgovernment of GeneralissimoJiang Jieshi was forced to fleethe country to the island ofFormosa (Taiwan) when thecommunists, led by MaoZedong, swept over thecountry. The collapse of NationalistChina was a depressing loss forAmerica and its allies in theCold War as ¼ of the worldspopulation fell to communism.
1st Arms Race In September 1949, the SovietUnion exploded its first atomicbomb, 3 years before expertsthought possible. To stay one step ahead, Trumanordered the development of the H-bomb (Hydrogen Bomb). The first H-bomb was exploded in1952. The Soviets exploded their first H-bomb in 1953, and the nuclear armsrace entered a dangerouslycompetitive cycle.
The HydrogenBomb, 1954The test blast at BikiniAtoll in the MarshallIslands was so powerfulthat one Japanesefisherman was killed andall twenty-two of hiscrewmates were seriouslyinjured by radioactive ashthat fell on their vesselsome eighty miles away.Fishing boats a thousandmiles from Bikini laterbrought in radioactivelycontaminated catches.
Feeling Out AllegedCommunists In 1947, President Trumanlaunched the Loyalty ReviewBoard to investigate thepossibility of communist spiesin the government. In 1949, 11 communists weresent to prison for violating theSmith Act of 1940 (firstpeacetime antisedition lawsince 1798) in advocating theoverthrow of the Americangovernment. The ruling was upheld inDennis v. United States(1951).
The Hunt Begins In 1938, the House ofRepresentatives established theCommittee on Un-AmericanActivities (HUAC) to investigate"subversion." In 1948,Congressman Richard M. Nixonled the hunt for and eventualconviction of Alger Hiss, aprominent ex-New Dealer and adistinguished member of the"eastern establishment." Americans began to join in onthe hunt for communist spies ofwho were thought to riddleAmerica.
Kill… or be Killed In 1950, Truman vetoed theMcCarran Internal Security Bill,which authorized the president toarrest and detain suspicious peopleduring an "internal securityemergency." Congress overrodeTrumans veto and passed the bill. In 1951, Julius and EthelRosenberg were convicted andsentenced to death for stealingAmerican atomic bomb plans andselling them to the Soviet Union. They were the only people inhistory to be sentenced to death forespionage.
Democratic Divisions in1948 In 1948, the Republicans chose Thomas E. Dewey to run forpresident. After war hero Dwight D. Eisenhower chose not to run for thepresidency, the Democrats chose Truman. Trumans nomination split the Democratic Party. Southern Democrats met and nominated Governor J. Strom Thurmond. The new Progressive party nominated Henry A. Wallace. Expected to lose, but not ready to give up, Truman traveled thecountry, giving energetic speeches. On Election Day, Truman, although not winning the popular vote, beatDewey and was reelected as president. Trumans victory came from the votes of farmers, workers, and blacks.
The Harried PianoPlayer, 1948Beseiged by the leftamd rogjt womgs of hisown party, and by ahost of domestic andforeignproblems, Truman wasa long shot forreelection in 1948. Butthe scrappy presidentsurprised his legions ofcritics by handilydefeating hisopponent, Thomas E.Dewey
Harry S. Truman Thomas E. Dewey Strom ThurmondDemocratic Republican States RightsDemocratic Party (Dixiecrat)
Point Four President Truman called fora "bold new program"("Point Four"). The plan was to lend U.S.money and technical aid tounderdeveloped lands tohelp them help themselves. He wanted to spend millionsto keep underprivilegedpeople from becomingcommunists.
The Fair Deal At home, Truman outlined a "Fair Deal" program in1949. It called for improved housing, full employment, ahigher minimum wage, better farm price supports, newTVAs, and an extension of Social Security. The only major successes came in raising the minimumwage, providing for public housing in the Housing Actof 1949, and extending old-age insurance to manymore beneficiaries in the Social Security Act of 1950.
The Korean VolcanoERUPTS  When Japan collapsed in1945, Korea had been divided upinto two sections: the Sovietscontrolled the north above the 38thparallel and the United Statescontrolled south of that line. On June 25, 1950, the NorthKorean army invaded South Korea. President Trumans NationalSecurity Council had recommendedNSC-68, calling for the quadruplingof the United States defensespending. Truman ordered a massive militarybuildup, well beyond what wasnecessary for the Korean War.
Without approval NSC-68 was a key document of theCold War because it not only markeda major step in the militarization ofAmerican foreign policy, but itreflected the sense of almost limitlesspossibility that encompassed postwarAmerican society. On June 25, 1950, President Trumanobtained from the United NationsSecurity Council a unanimouscondemnation of North Korea as anaggressor. (The Soviet Union wasnot present at the meeting.) Without Congresss approval, Trumanordered American air and naval unitsto be sent to support South Korea.
The Military Seesaw inKorea On September 15, 1950, General MacArthur succeeded inpushing the North Koreans past the 38th parallel. On November 1950, though, hordes of communistChinese "volunteers" attacked the U.N. forces, pushingthem back to the 38th parallel. Due to General MacArthurs insubordination anddisagreement with the Joint Chiefs of Staff about increasingthe size of the war, President Truman was forced to removeMacArthur from command on April 11, 1951. In July 1951, truce discussions dragged out over the issueof prisoner exchange.
The Shifting Front in KoreaTruman Takes the Heat
Learning Goal NJCCCS: 6.1.12.D.13.a Determine the impetus for the Civil Rights Movement,and explain why national governmental actions wereneeded to ensure civil rights for African Americans.
An EarlyComputer, ca.1950Just a fewdecadeslater, technological improvementswould bring thecomputing powerof this bulkybehemoth to theuser‟s desktop
The Advent of Eisenhower Lacking public support for Truman, Democrats nominated Adlai E.Stevenson to run for the presidency in the election of 1952. Republicanschose General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Richard M. Nixon was chosen for vice-president to satisfy theanticommunist wing of the Republican Party. During the presidential campaign, reports of Nixon secretly tappinggovernment funds arose. After Eisenhower considered dropping Nixon from the ballot, Nixon went ontelevision and stated his apologies in the "Checkers speech"-this savedhis place on the ballot. The new technology of black-and-white television changed politicalcampaigning. Television often over-simplified the complicated issues of the time. Dwight Eisenhower won the election of 1952 by a large majority.
"Ike" Takes Command True to his campaignpromise, President Eisenhowerattempted to end the Korean War. In July 1953, after Eisenhowerthreatened to use nuclearweapons, an armistice wassigned, ending the Korean War. Despite the Korean War, Korearemained divided at the 38thParallel. Eisenhowers leadership style ofsincerity, fairness, and optimismhelped to comfort the nation afterthe war.
The Original Golden Arches, 1955Maurice and Richard McDonald replaced their original drive-in hamburger standin San Bernadino, California, with this double-arched design in 1953.McDonald‟s soon became one of the largest franchised restaurant chains in theworld and a global symbol of American consumerism
The KingWith his fleshy face, poutinglips, and antic, sexuallysuggestive gyrations, ElvisPresley became the highpriest of rock n‟ roll in the1950s, to the chagrin ofparents everywhere. Bloatedby fame, fortune and drugs, hedied in 1977 at the age offorty-two.
Learning Goal NJCCCS: 6.1.12.D.12.b Analyze efforts to eliminate communism, such asMcCarthyism, and their impact on individual civilliberties.
The Rise and Fall of JosephMcCarthy In February 1950, Republican Senator Joseph R. McCarthy made aspeech accusing Secretary of State Dean Acheson of knowinglyemploying 205 Communist party members. Even though the accusations later proved to be false, McCarthy gainedthe support of the public. With the Republican victory in the election of 1952, his rhetoric becamebolder as his accusations of communism grew. Though McCarthy was not the first red-hunter, he was the mostruthless, doing the most damage to American traditions of fair play andfree speech. In 1954, McCarthy went too far and attacked the U.S. Army. Just a few months later, he was condemned by the Senate for "conductunbecoming a member."
Senator McCarthyExtinguishes theTorch of LibertyWhile preachingpatriotism, McCarthy irresponsiblymenaced Americantraditions of civilliberties.
ExecutiveOrder 10450 April 27th, 1953- Eisenhowerdeclared war on gay andlesbian Americans Issued Executive Order 10450,which banned gays andlesbians from working for thegovernment. Hundreds of agents wereassigned to investigate theprivate lives of federalemployees. Anyone found to be gay orlesbian was offered a choice:resign or be fire.
A Brutal Witch Hunt Thousands lost their jobs More than a few, with theircareers in ruins andrelationships with friends andfamily torn apart, committedsuicide. Eisenhower‟s actionsresulted in an unintendedpositive effect: it inspired anew sense of anger, outrageand militancy in the gay andlesbian community.
Desegregating the South All aspects of life of AfricanAmericans in the South weregoverned by the Jim Crow laws. Blacks dealt with an array ofseparate social arrangementsthat kept them insulated fromwhites, economically inferior,and politically powerless. Gunnar Myrdal exposed thecontradiction between Americasprofessed belief that all men arecreated equal and its terribletreatment of black citizens in hisbook An American Dilemma(1944).
The Face of SegregationThese women in thesegregated South of the 1950swere compelled to enter themovie theater through the“Colored Entrance”. Onceinside, they were restricted to aseparate seating section,usually in the rear of thetheater.
Sweatt v. Painter (1950) World War II had generated a newmilitancy and restlessness amongmany members of the blackcommunity. In 1944, the Supreme Court ruledthe "white primary"unconstitutional, undermining thestatus of the Democratic Party inthe South as a white personsclub. In the Supreme Court case ofSweatt v. Painter (1950), theCourt ruled that separateprofessional schools for blacksfailed to meet the test of equality.
Rosa Parks In December 1955, RosaParks refused to give up herseat to a white person on abus in Montgomery,Alabama. Her arrest sparked ayearlong black boycott of thecity busses and servednotice throughout the Souththat blacks would no longersubmit meekly to theabsurdities and indignities ofsegregation.
Martin Luther King Jr., and his Wife, Coretta, Arrested.King and his wife were arrested for the first time in Montgomery, Alabama, in1955 while organizing the bus boycott.
Seeds of the Civil Rights Revolution Hearing of the lynching ofblack war veterans in 1946,President Harry S Trumancommissioned a report titled"To Secure These Rights." Truman ended segregationin federal civil service andordered "equality oftreatment and opportunity" inthe armed forces in 1948.
Brown v. Board ofEducation When Congress and new President Eisenhower ignored theracial issues, Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warrenstepped up to confront important social issues-especiallycivil rights for African Americans. In the case Brown v. Board of Education ofTopeka, Kansas (1954), the Supreme Court ruled thatsegregation in public schools was unequal and thusunconstitutional. The decision reversed the previous rulingin Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). States in the Deep South resisted the ruling, and more than100 senators and congressman signed the "Declaration ofConstitutional Principles" in 1956, pledging theirunyielding resistance to desegregation.
When his mom let him visit his uncle in Money, Mississippi, Emmett and somefriends hung out at this market where Emmett would talk about the north, jokeof a white girl being his girlfriend and talk to the lady in the store as a dare inwhich he was accused of whistling at her.Thewomanturned outto be thewife of theowner whowould hereof the newsas itspread likelightning.
Roy Bryant and his half brother JW Milamthen decided to “teach the boy a lesson” asRoy felt his wife‟s image was tainted by theincident so they planned to meet at 2:00 am.
Mose Wright would then tell reporters what happened next: “Sunday morning about2:30 someone called at the door. And, I said „who is it,‟ and he said, „this is Mr.Bryant. I want to talk with you and the boy.‟ And when I opened the door, there was aman standing with a pistol in one hand and a flashlight in the other hand.”The men forced their way into Emmett‟s bedroomwhere he was sleeping and took him to their car.They beat him severely enraged he had a picture ofa white woman in his wallet. They shot him andthrew him in a river where his body was found a fewdays later .
A fisherman found his body three days later in theTallahatchie River which to the surprise of many, the menwere charged of kidnapping and then murder was added tothe charges.
The trial was held in an all white courtroomand despite ample evidence it lasted onlyone week, “the case was lost before itbegan.” In the closing remarks one of thedefense attorneys told the jurors “every lastAnglo Saxon one of you men in this jury hasthe courage to set these men free.” OnSeptember 23, 1955 the jury declaredBryant and Milam innocent after onlydeliberating for one hour.Mose Wright, as awitness, was one of the firsttimes African Americansaccused a white of a crime in aMississippi court of law. He hadto leave the state immediatelyafter.
Mamie Till held an open casket funeral for her son so people around the worldcould see “what they did to my boy”. He had a bullet hole in his head and hisface was battered beyond recognition while his body was decomposing afterseveral days in the river. Jet Magazine published an article about the murderwith a photo of Emmett‟s body. The editor, John Johnson said “ Theissue, which went out on sale on September 15, 1955, sold out immediatelyand did as much as any other event to traumatize black America and preparethe way for the freedom movement of the sixties.A young black woman who would beinfluenced by the murder said “all ofus remembered the photograph ofEmmett Till‟s face, lying in the coffin,in Jet magazine . . . That galvanizeda generation as a symbol- that wasour symbol- that if they did it to him,they could do it to us”
Former NAACP official-“The Emmett Till casebecame a cog in thewheel of change.”Charles C Diggs Jr.-“The Emmett Till trial is over,but we, as Negroes, should never forget itsmeaning. The fact that Milam and Bryant wereacquitted shows us how tremendous a job we faceto bring complete democracy to our entire nation.Negroes and other clear thinking Americans mustcombine their efforts to press for freedom andequality through both political and legalchallenges.”David Halberstam- “Thefirst great media event ofthe civil rights movement.”Chris Crowe- “The civilrights movementgained the momentumnecessary to breakfree from the socialbondage that hadenslaved Blacks sincebefore the signing ofthe Declaration ofIndependence.”
When Emmett Till was at gunpoint from two strangers he waschallenged by Milam saying “You still as good as I am,”Emmett‟s response to this was “Yeah.”The case was the main reason that many African Americansacted out as to what they felt was the American Dream:equality.
Crisis at Little Rock President Eisenhower was littleinclined toward promotingintegration. He shied away fromupsetting "the customs andconvictions of at least twogenerations of Americans." In September 1957, OrvalFaubus, the governor of Arkansasmobilized the National Guard toprevent nine black students fromenrolling in Little Rocks CentralHigh School. Confronted with a direct challengeto federal authority, Eisenhowersent troops to escort the childrento their classes.
Who are they? The Little Rock Nine are a group ofnine African American studentswho started the integration ofCentral High School in Little Rock,Arkansas. Their names are: Ernest Green Elizabeth Eckford Jefferson Thomas Terrance Roberts Carlotta Walls Minnijean Brown Gloria Ray Thelma Mothershed Melba Pattillo
The Public’s Reaction Most whites wereagainst integrationincluding theArkansas GovernorOrval Faubus. Most AfricanAmericans saw theintegration of CentralHigh School assomething that wouldcause more troublefor their race than itwould good.
Arkansas’s Reaction Faubus took many preventive measuresagainst integration On television the night before the firstday of school, he declared intergation animpossibility. He also ordered the Arkansas NationalGaurd to surround Central High and keepall blacks out of the school, whichworked for the first couple days.
Federal Government’s Reaction•On September 20th, Judge Ronald N. Daviesgranted an injunction that prevented Faubus fromusing the National Guard to keep the nine kids outof the school.•Faubus went along with the court order but saidthe kids should still stay away if they wanted to staysafe.•At this point, President Eisenhower intervened.
Continued President Eisenhower placed the Arkansas National Guardunder federal orders. He then called 1,200 members of the US Army’s 101stAirborne Division – The “Screaming Eagles” – from FortCampbell, Kentucky to Little Rock.
At School The nine were escorted back intoCentral for their first full day onSeptember 25th, 1957, under federaltroop escort. They suffered constant harassmentthat included getting kicked, shoved,spit on and called names. This harassment was so bad thefederal government assigned themall personal guards. When asked why they stayed insuch a hostile situation Ernest Greensays “We kids did it mainly becausewe didn’t know any better, but ourparents were willing to put theircareers, and their homes on theline.”
Continued Minnijean Brown was the only one of the Nine torespond to the harassment. She plumped her bowl of chili on two white boysand referred to a white girl who had hit her as“white trash.” She was suspended and later expelled.
Continued She has said “I just can’t take everythingthey throw at me without fighting back.” On May 27th, 1958, Ernest Green becamethe first African American to graduatefrom Little Rock Central High School. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. attended hisgraduation ceremony. Green said “It’s been an interesting year.I’ve had a course in human relations firsthand.
After Graduation Voters chose to close all four of Little Rock’s highschools to prevent further desegregation efforts. Three of the Nine moved away and remaining fivetook classes at the University of Arkansas. In 1959, Faubus’s actions were declaredunconstituational and the schools were reopened. Jefferson Thompson and Carlotta Walls were the onlytwo out of the original Nine reassigned to CentralHigh and they graduated in 1959.
Impact on Society These kids made huge ripples in the civil rights movement. They showed that blacks could fight for their rights and win. And they also brought the idea of segregation to the rfont ofthe public’s minds. They showed people what horrible measures some whiteswould take to protect segregation. The events that took place at Central High inspired manylunch counter sit ins and caused other blacks to think if thesenine children could take on the enormous task of CivilRights, they could too.
Begin: CivilRights In 1957, Congress passed thefirst Civil Rights Act sinceReconstruction Days. It set up a permanent CivilRights Commission toinvestigate violations of civil rightsand authorized federal injunctionsto protect voting rights. Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King,Jr. formed the SouthernChristian LeadershipConference (SCLC) in 1957. It aimed to mobilize the vastpower of the black churches onbehalf of black rights.
SNCC On February 1, 1960, 4 blackcollege students inGreensboro, North Carolinademanded service at a whites-only lunch counter. Within a week, the sit-inreached 1,000students, spreading a wave ofwade-ins, lie-ins, and pray-insacross the South demandingequal rights. In April 1960, southern blackstudents formed the StudentNon-Violent CoordinatingCommittee (SNCC) to givemore focus and force to theirefforts.
Eisenhower Republicanismat Home When dealing with people, President Eisenhower wasliberal, but when dealing with the economy and thegovernment, he was conservative. He strived to balance the federal budget and to guardAmerica from socialism. True to his small government philosophy, Eisenhowersupported the transfer of control over offshore oil fieldsfrom the federal government to the states.
Operation: Wetback In 1954, giving in to theMexican governmentsworries that illegal Mexicanimmigration to the UnitedStates would undercut thebracero program of legallyimported farmworkers,President Eisenhowerrounded up a million illegalimmigrants in OperationWetback.
Operation WetbackThousands of illegal Mexican immigrants were forcibly repatriated toMexico in the federal government‟s 1954 roundup operation, whichwas promoted in part by the Mexican government. The man in thisphotograph is being pulled across the border by a Mexicanofficial, while an American spectator tries to pull him back into theUnited States
Jobs and Deals Eisenhower sought to cancel the tribal preservation policies of the"Indian New Deal," in place since 1934. He wanted to terminate the tribes as legal entities and to revert to theassimilationist goals of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. The plan was dropped in 1961 after most tribes refused to beterminated. Eisenhower knew that he could not cancel all of the programs created inthe New Deal and Fair Deal, because of the lack of public support. He actually supported the Interstate Highway Act of 1956, whichcreated countless jobs and sped the suburbanization of America as42,000 miles of highways were built. Eisenhower only managed to balance the budget 3 times while in office,and in 1959, he incurred the biggest peacetime deficit in the history ofthe United States.
Drive-In Movie Theater, Utah, 1958 Going to the movies became one more thingAmericans could do in their cars in the 1950s. Here moviegoers watch CharltonHeston as Moses in the Acemy Award-winning motion picture The TenCommandments. It was the last film by famed director Cecil B. DeMille.
A New Look in ForeignPolicy In 1954, secretary of state John FosterDulles proposed a plan in whichEisenhower would set aside the armyand the navy to build up an air fleet ofsuperbombers (called the Strategic AirCommand, or SAC) equipped withnuclear bombs. This would allow President Eisenhowerto threaten countries such as the SovietUnion and China with nuclear weapons. At the Geneva summit conference in1955, President Eisenhower attemptedto make peace with the new SovietUnion dictator, Nikita Khrushchev,following Stalins death. Peace negotiations were rejected.
The Vietnam Nightmare In the early 1950s, nationalist movements had sought to throwthe French out of Indochina. The leaders of the Indochina countries, including Vietnam leaderHo Chi Minh, became increasingly communist as Americabecame increasingly anticommunist. In May 1954, a French garrison was trapped in the fortress ofDienbienphu in northwestern Vietnam. President Eisenhower decided not to intervene, wary of anotherwar right after Korea. Dienbienphu fell to the nationalists and the conference at Genevahalted Vietnam at the 17th parallel. The pro-Western government in the south, led by Ngo DinhDiem, was entrenched at Saigon as Vietnam-wideelections, which were promised by Ho Chi Minh, were neverheld. President Eisenhower promised economic and military aid to the
A False Lull in Europe In 1955, West Germany was let intoNATO. Also in 1955, the Eastern Europeancountries and the Soviets signed theWarsaw Pact, creating a red militarycounterweight to the newly-bolsteredNATO forces in the West. In May 1955, the Soviets ended theoccupation of Austria. In 1956, Hungary rose up against theSoviets attempting to win theirindependence. When their request for aid from theUnited States was denied, they wereslaughtered by the Soviet forces. Americas nuclear weapon was too bigof a weapon to use on such a relativelysmall crisis.
Menaces in the Middle East In 1953, in an effort to secure Iranian oil for Western countries, theCIA engineered a coup that installed Mohammed Reza Pahlevi asthe dictator of Iran. President Nasser of Egypt was seeking funds to build a dam onthe Nile River. After associating with the communists, secretary of state Dullespulled back U.S. monetary aid for Egypt. As a result, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, which was ownedby the French and British. In October of 1956, the Suez Crisis ensued as the French andBritish launched an assault on Egypt. The two countries were forced to withdraw their troops as Americarefused to release emergency supplies of oil to them.
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, 1954.Shown here greeting exuberant supporters after his election as the first president ofthe new Egyptian republic, Nasser was long a thorn in the flesh of American andEuropean policymakers anxious to protect the previous oil resources of the MiddleEast. “Nassarism” his version of Pan-Arabism, won a great following in the Arabworld during the 1950s and 1960s.
Eisenhower Doctrine In 1957, Congressproclaimed the EisenhowerDoctrine, pledging U.S.military and economic aid toMiddle Eastern nationsthreatened by communistaggression. In 1960, Saudi Arabia,Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, andVenezuela joined together toform the Organization ofPetroleum ExportingCountries (OPEC).
Round Two for Ike President Eisenhower was reelected in the election of 1956 as hebeat his Democratic opponent, Adlai Stevenson. In 1959, a drastic labor-reform bill grew out of recurrent strikes inimportant industries and corruption in unions. The Teamsters Union leader, "Dave" Beck was sentenced to prisonfor embezzlement. When his union replaced him with James R. Hoffa, the AF of L-CIOexpelled the Teamsters. Hoffa was later jailed for jury tampering. In 1959, President Eisenhower passed the Landrum-Griffin Act. Itwas designed to bring labor leaders to book for financial shenanigansand to prevent bullying tactics.
The Helicopter Era, 1957.President Eisenhower wasroutinely criticized by liberals, as inthis Herblock cartoon in theWashington Post, for his apparentindifference to many seethingsocial problems of the day. Hisfailure to employ vast prestige onbehalf of civil rights was especiallyconspicuous.
The Race with the Sovietsinto Space On October 4, 1957, theSoviets launched theSputnik I satellite intospace. In November, they launchedthe satellite Sputnik II,carrying a dog. The two satellites gavecredibility to the Sovietclaims that superior industrialproduction lay throughcommunism.
NASA/EDUCATION In response, PresidentEisenhower established theNational Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration (NASA). As a result of the newtechnological advances in theSoviet Union, it was thought thatthe educational system of theSoviet Union was better than theUnited States; a move to improvethe American education systemwas taken. In 1958, the National Defenseand Education Act (NDEA)authorized $887 million in loans toneedy college students and ingrants for the improvement ofteaching sciences and languages.
The Continuing Cold War In March and October 1958, theSoviet Union and the United States,respectively, proclaimed asuspension of nuclear testing. In July 1958, Lebanon called foraid under the Eisenhower Doctrineas communism threatened to engulfthe country. In 1959, Soviet dictator Khrushchevappeared before the U.N. GeneralAssembly and called for completedisarmament. In 1960, an American U-2 spyplane was shot down in Russia,causing feelings of a possiblypeaceful resolution to subside.
Cubas Castroism SpellsCommunism Latin Americans began toshow dissent towards Americaas the United States seemedto neglect Latin Americaseconomic needs for favor ofEuropes. They also despised constantAmerican intervention - theCIA directed a coup in 1954that overthrew a leftistgovernment in Guatemala. Fidel Castro led a coup thatoverthrew the America-supported government ofCuba in 1959.
Beginning of Cuban Issues Annoyed with Castros anti-American attitude and Castroseizing valuable Americanproperties in Cuba, the UnitedStates cut off the heavy U.S.imports of Cuban sugar. Cubas left-wing dictatorshipquickly had the possibility tobecome a military satellite forthe Soviet Union. In August 1960, Congressauthorized $500 million toprevent communism fromspreading in Latin America.