The Sixties


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The Sixties

  1. 1. The Sixties: Progress or Decline? Part One<br />Mr. Shore<br />
  2. 2. JFK and “The New Frontier”<br />“The torch is being passed to a new generation”<br />New Frontier program: aid to education, federal support of health care, urban renewal and civil rights<br />Kennedy supports tax cuts to stimulate economic growth<br />The economy grew and was further stimulated by new defense programs and space exploration<br />Kennedy’s goal is to land on the moon by end of the decade<br />
  3. 3. Prosperity and Turmoil<br />Postwar economic prosperity peaked in the the ’60s<br />Political Assassinations: JFK, Martin Luther King, Robert Kennedy<br />Race Riots and Tensions<br />War in Vietnam escalates<br />Student Riots, Protests & Anti-Capitalist Radicalism<br />Modern Conservative Movement Mobilizes<br />
  4. 4. “Camelot Comes to Washington”<br />1960 Election: Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts vs. Vice President Richard Nixon<br />Richard Nixon was respected for his years of service as President Eisenhower’s VP and was known as a diplomatic statesman, a strong advocate of capitalism against communism and a tough, smart campaigner. Nixon more respected than liked. Nixon from California chose Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. of Massachusetts as running mate.<br />JFK ran in tough Democratic primaries principally against Senate Majority Leader, Lyndon Baines Johnson of Texas. Kennedy was a charming, handsome and charismatic young Senator from Massachusetts<br />
  5. 5. Election of 1960<br />JFK was the second candidate after Al Smith to be a Roman Catholic. Many Protestant Americans feared the President would “take orders” from the Pope.<br /> Kennedy affirmed his commitment to a strict separation of church and state<br />The youthful Kennedy chose Johnson as his running mate<br />Kennedy and Johnson did NOT have a close relationship. LBJ viewed the Kennedys and the people around Kennedy as Ivy League, “pin-striped” elitists. <br />
  6. 6. Election of 1960 (cont)<br />Kennedy and Nixon had four televised debates<br />Most people who heard the debates on radio thought Nixon had won<br />For the TV audience, Kennedy was considered the clear winner—showing more grace, charm and humor. Nixon appeared stiff, nervous and relatively humorless<br />This was the first televised presidential debate and showed the enormous power of TV and visual media in politics<br />
  7. 7. The Issues<br />Nixon defended the peace and prosperity of the Eisenhower years<br />Nixon emphasized the need for continuity and experienced leadership during times of international tension<br />Kennedy promised to “get America moving again”<br />Kennedy attached the Republicans as weak on military affairs and permitting a “missile gap” that allowed the Soviets to gain potential superiority over the US. In reality, the US still had a lead in missiles<br />
  8. 8. Kennedy wins by a slim majority<br />In one of the closest elections in US history, Kennedy one by a mere 100,000 votes.<br />Widespread charges and identified cases of fraudulent Democratic votes by party machines in Chicago and throughout Texas<br />Cases of “dead voters” and multiple votes by the same people<br />Nixon chose not to challenge the election results and conceded to Kennedy<br />Lingering feeling by Republicans of a “stolen election” <br />
  9. 9. Popularity of JFK<br />Youngest president elected at 43 years old<br />Jacqueline “Jackie” Kennedy—young, beautiful First Lady<br />Two young children—Caroline and JFK, Jr “John-John”<br />President’s brother, Robert Kennedy, is the Attorney-General<br />Kennedy believes it has “the best and the brightest” on its team: Robert McNamara (Defense), John Kenneth Galbraith (economic advisor), Pierre Salinger (speechwriter)<br />
  10. 10. Kennedy’s Foreign Policy<br />US leadership in the world<br />“Peace Corps” and “Alliance for Progress”<br />Failed “Bay of Pigs” Invasion of Cuba (1961)<br />Emboldened Soviets build the Berlin Wall<br />The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)—US establishes a naval blockade of Cuba to counter the building of nuclear missile sites in Cuba. Showdown with Soviet Union could have led to a nuclear war.<br />Khrushchev removed missiles after US pledge not to invade Cuba and the downgrading of US base in Turkey<br />
  11. 11. Kennedy’s Foreign Policy (cont)<br />1963—Nuclear Test Ban Treaty<br />US-Soviet arms race continues<br />Kennedy travels to West Berlin: “As a free man, I take pride in the words, Ich bin ein Berliner”<br />Kennedy speech in Berlin has electrifying impact—very much like Pres. Reagan’s famous line, “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!”<br />Proxy wars in Africa and Southeast Asia.<br />US adopts a “flexible response” policy—increased the reliance on special forces in third world countries<br />Dangerous new adventurism because conflict was no longer a matter of massive retailiation<br />
  12. 12. The Kennedy Assassination<br />Killed by a sniper (Lee Harvey Oswald) in an open-air motorcade in Dallas on November 22, 1963<br />Vice President Johnson sworn in as President on Air Force One<br />Conspiracy theories require President Johnson to appoint Chief Justice Earl Warren to establish a Commission to determine the truth of JFK’s assassination<br />Warren Commission supports lone killer (Oswald) finding and finds no basis for conspiracy<br />
  13. 13. President Johnson<br />Persuaded Congress to pass an expanded version of Kennedy’s Civil Rights bill<br />Persuaded Congress to pass Kennedy’s tax cut that sparked an increase in jobs, consumer spending and a long period of economic expansion in the Sixties<br />LBJ declares “War on Poverty”—inspired by popularity of socialist Michael Harrington’s book, The Other Americans<br />Office of Economic Opportunity, Head Start, Job Corps, Community Action Program<br />
  14. 14. Election of 1964<br />Republicans choose Senator Barry Goldwater to run against LBJ<br />Ronald Reagan makes his major political debut as a supporter of Goldwater<br />Goldwater writes a manifesto for restoring limited government and against the growing welfare state in The Conscience of a Conservative<br />LBJ wins in a landslide promising an expansion of the New Deal called “The Great Society”<br />
  15. 15. LBJ’s “Great Society” Programs<br />Creation of Medicare, health care for the elderly<br />Creation of Medicaid, government paid health for the poor<br />Elementary and Secondary Education Act<br />New immigration law allowing more Asians and Latin Americans to emigrate to US<br />National Foundation of the Arts and Humanities<br />Two new cabinet positions: Department of Transportation and Department of Housing and Urban Development<br />Increased subsidies for higher education<br />Increased funding for public housing and crime prevention<br />Increased federal funding of welfare<br />
  16. 16. Civil Rights Acts & 24th Amendment<br />1964—Segregation illegal in all public places<br />1965—Voting Rights Act ended literacy tests and provided federal registrars in areas of known discrimination<br />24th Amendment—abolished poll tax<br />
  17. 17. Racial Conflict<br />1962—James Meredith, a black Air Force veteran, attempted to enroll in the University of Mississippi<br />400 Federal Marshall and 3000 troops were needed to control mob violence and permit Meredith to attend<br />1963—Governor George Wallace of Alabama also tried to block a black student. Wallace declared: “Segregation now and forever!”<br />Civil Rights activists and Freedom Riders<br />MLK nonviolent march in Birmingham<br />MLK’s famous “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”<br />
  18. 18. MLK and the 1963 March on Washington<br />MLK’s “I Have a Dream” speech<br />“We Shall Overcome” becomes the Civil Rights unofficial “anthem”<br />Voting Rights March from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama with both blacks and many whites<br />White police violence against marchers<br />
  19. 19. “BLACK POWER”<br />Many blacks reject an identity they viewed as imposed by a white, racist society and that blacks themselves had internalized<br />Blacks who tried to assimilate into mainstream society (which was more of a possibility in a country seeking to be “color-blind”) were considered “Uncle Toms”<br />A black Muslim, Elijah Muhammad, establishes the Nation of Islam (calls for black nationalism and whites are “Ice People” as opposed “Sun People” who are people of color<br />Malcolm X becomes a contrasting icon to MLK <br />
  20. 20. Radicalism and Riots<br />Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) <br />Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)<br />Stokely Carmichael, chairman of SNCC, repudiates nonviolence and embraces “black power” and black separatism<br />In 1966, “Black Panthers” organized by Huey Newton, Bobby Seale and others as a militant, revolutionary socialist movement for black separatism and nationalism<br />Black Panther slogans: “Get whitey”, “Burn baby, burn”<br />
  21. 21. Radicalism and Riots (Cont)<br />Race Riots in major cities from 1964 to 1968<br />1965 riots in the Watts area of Los Angeles<br />Massive destruction of private property—stores, schools, homes and apartments…etc.<br />Rift begins that begins to strain the traditional political support of Jewish American for black due to growing anti-Semitism of black radicals and targeting of Jewish stores and property in black communities during riots. Radical blacks hostile to the prominent role of Jews in New York public schools<br />
  22. 22. Student Radicalism<br />1962—Establishment of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) led by Tom Hayden<br />Port Huron Statement—universities should be governed through participatory democracy. Called for a “New Left” that counters “American imperialism”, capitalism, traditional bases for authority, traditional family structure and gender roles, traditional curriculum, scholarship and standards of academia. Stresses the vanguard role of youth and socialists in creating “community” and “economic democracy”<br />SDS spinoffs include anti-Communist League for Industrial Democracy, non-violent Worker Student Alliance, communist Progressive Labor Party, the violent Revolutionary Youth Movement and Weather Underground<br />
  23. 23. Radicalism<br />SDS calls their cause the Free Speech Movement<br />Berkeley students demand more “relevant” curriculum as well as rule changes such as permission to drink on campus and dorm visits by persons of the opposite sex<br />By 1968, SDS factions called for a “white fighting force” to be allied with the “Black Liberation Movement” to achieve “the destruction of US imperialism and achieve a classless world: world communism.”<br />Radicals fight Chicago police at 1968 Democratic National Convention which becomes a violent mob fight<br />
  24. 24. Radicalism<br />Universities across the country were disrupted or closed down by student demonstrations and antiwar (Vietnam) protests<br />Use of explosives at various public sites such as Haymarket Square in Chicago<br />Weather Underground: “Days of Rage” in October, 1969<br />Violence escalates through 1970<br />
  25. 25. Counterculture<br />The “Hippies”<br />Rebellious style of clothes and appearance—long hair, beards, beads, jeans<br />Generational music—Folk/protest music of Joan Baez and Bob Dylan; Rock and Roll—”The Beatles”; “The Rolling Stones”; Jim Morrison; Janis Joplin<br />Communal Living and “free sex”<br />Drugs seen as “expanded consciousness”—use of hallucinogens such as LSD. Prof. Timothy Leary extols virtues of LSD and other drugs to see a “deeper” reality<br />
  26. 26. Counterculture<br />Widespread use of marijuana<br />Experimentation with a wide range of mind-altering drugs<br />Inevitably many became addicted or were never able to cope with daily life<br />Growing acceptance of casual sex and multiple partners before marriage (made easier with contraceptives and antibiotics)<br />Renewed feminist movement that challenged all traditional ideas of the role of women’s sexuality and identity<br />Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique<br />Establishment of National Organization of Women (NOW)<br />The iconic event: Woodstock Music Festival<br />
  27. 27. The Vietnam War<br />2.7 million Americans served in Vietnam<br />58,000 died in the war<br />Kennedy sent “military advisors” and a small contingent of about 16,000 combat troops<br />President Johnson gets formal authority to commit US troops to defend South Vietnam by Congress in the Gulf of Tonkin resolution in 1964<br />General popular support for defending democracies against Communist aggression in the region<br />
  28. 28. The War Escalates<br />Remember the “Flexible Response Doctrine”<br />Prolonged air attacks over North Vietnam—”Operation Rolling Thunder” in 1965<br />By end of 1965 there are over 185,000 US troops in Vietnam led by General William Westmoreland<br />Incremental increase of troops to 485,000 in 1967 to peak of 540,000 in March, 1969<br />16,000 had died by this point<br />Nation deeply polarized: Hawks vs. Doves<br />War takes turn for the worse due to N. Vietnam’s successful Tet Offensive in 1969<br />
  29. 29. War Protests<br />Increasingly angry and violent war protests<br />Some protestors even target returning veterans<br />Peace Movement allies with some counterculture—”Make Love, Not War”<br />Public opinion divided. Many believe the failure of US policy is due to its incremental nature and failure to use overwhelming force<br />Country experiences inflation because of both new domestic spending and expenses of war<br />LBJ is unpopular and demoralized<br />Protesters chant outside White House: “Hey, hey, LBJ—how many kids did you kill today<br />LBJ decides NOT to run for another term in 1968<br />
  30. 30. Election of 1968<br />Democrats nominate VP Hubert Humphrey to head the ticket at raucous Convention with riots outside the Conventional Hall<br />Senator Robert Kennedy had been assassinated after winning the California primary<br />Governor George Wallace tapped into white resentment over civil rights and racial violence as well as those offended by the Counterculture<br />Richard Nixon reemerges to become the Republican nominee<br />Nixon wins election.<br />