Ancient history chapter 3

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Keynote Presentation of Early Civilizations of India and China

Keynote Presentation of Early Civilizations of India and China

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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 3: EarlyCivilizations in India and
  • 2. Geography: Indian Subcontinent
  • 3. Geography: Indian Subcontinent Subcontinent- large landmass that juts out from a continent.
  • 4. Geography: Indian Subcontinent Subcontinent- large landmass that juts out from a continent. ◦ What does India look like?  Wedge-shaped continent in the Indian Ocean.
  • 5. Subcontinent: Three Regions
  • 6. Subcontinent: Three Regions 1. Well-watered northern plain ◦ Just south of mountains ◦ Fertile (watered by two rivers, Indus and Ganges)  Rivers are sacred
  • 7. Subcontinent: Three Regions 1. Well-watered northern plain ◦ Just south of mountains ◦ Fertile (watered by two rivers, Indus and Ganges)  Rivers are sacred 2. Dry Deccan plateau ◦ Juts into the Indian Ocean ◦ Arid, hot and sparsely populated
  • 8. Subcontinent: Three Regions 1. Well-watered northern plain ◦ Just south of mountains ◦ Fertile (watered by two rivers, Indus and Ganges)  Rivers are sacred 2. Dry Deccan plateau ◦ Juts into the Indian Ocean ◦ Arid, hot and sparsely populated 3. Coastal Plains ◦ Heavy, seasonal rain ◦ Used sea for fishing and trade Ancient India
  • 9. Indus Valley Civilization2g564gg http://tinyurl.com/
  • 10. Indus Valley Civilization
  • 11. Indus Valley Civilization Two main cities ◦ Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro  Both had a massive hilltop structure (fortress or temple), large warehouses for storage of food.  Laid out in grid pattern  Rectangular blocks  Houses built in similar patterns  Modern plumbing systems with baths, drains and water chutes leading to sewers beneath the streets  Merchants used advanced weight systems for sales  Well organized government
  • 12. Farming and Religion
  • 13. Farming and Religion Wheat, barley and dates
  • 14. Farming and Religion Wheat, barley and dates First to cultivate cotton and weave fibers into cloth
  • 15. Farming and Religion Wheat, barley and dates First to cultivate cotton and weave fibers into cloth Sea traders and merchants ◦ Contact with Sumer may have sparked their own system of writing
  • 16. Farming and Religion Wheat, barley and dates First to cultivate cotton and weave fibers into cloth Sea traders and merchants ◦ Contact with Sumer may have sparked their own system of writing Polytheistic ◦ Mother Goddess- source of creation
  • 17. Decline and Disappearance
  • 18. Decline and Disappearance Ecological disasters
  • 19. Decline and Disappearance Ecological disasters Too many trees cut down
  • 20. Decline and Disappearance Ecological disasters Too many trees cut down Volcanic eruption
  • 21. Decline and Disappearance Ecological disasters Too many trees cut down Volcanic eruption Earthquake
  • 22. Decline and Disappearance Ecological disasters Too many trees cut down Volcanic eruption Earthquake
  • 23. Decline and Disappearance Ecological disasters Too many trees cut down Volcanic eruption Earthquake Aryans overran Indus civilization
  • 24. Section 2
  • 25. Section 2 Vedic Age ◦ Ancient Technology ◦ Aryans built no cities, left no statues  Vedas- collection of prayers, hymns and religious teachings.  Warriors fought with bows, arrows and chariots  Loved eating, drinking and dancing  Nomadic herders
  • 26. Aryan Society
  • 27. Aryan Society Divided people into
  • 28. Aryan Society Divided people into occupation
  • 29. Aryan Society Divided people into occupation 3 basic groups ◦ 1. Brahmins (priests) ◦ 2. Kshatriyas (warriors) ◦ 3. Vaisyas (herders)  Warriors had power at first, changed to the priests  Divine right  4th group were Shudras
  • 30. Social System Caste system- social groups into which people are born and from which they cannot change. Untouchables Caste System
  • 31. Religious Beliefs
  • 32. Religious Beliefs Polytheistic ◦ Indra- God of War, weapon was the thunderbolt ◦ Varuna- God of order and creation ◦ Agni- God of fire and served as the messenger from the people to the gods ◦ Offered sacrifices
  • 33. Religious Beliefs (Cont.) Brahman- power resides in all things Mystics- people who devote their lives to seeking spiritual truth
  • 34. Expansion and Change Rajah- Chief of the Aryan tribe, most skilled warrior, elected by a group of warriors. Aryans settled down, became farmers 800B.C. learned how to make iron Built jungle cities New language- Sanskrit Sanskrit
  • 35. Expansion and Change (Cont.) Epic tale of Arjuna (Handout)
  • 36. Section 3- Ancient China Geography: The Middle Kingdom ◦ Geographic Barriers  Himalayan Mountains (SW)  Gobi Desert (N)  Jungles (SE)  Hard to invade China
  • 37. Main Regions
  • 38. Main Regions Heartland- east coast along two rivers, the Huang He (Yellow River) and the Yangtze ◦ Loess- fine yellow soil  As loess settles to the bottom, causes river to rise. Chinese constantly fought to build and repair dikes.
  • 39. Main Regions Heartland- east coast along two rivers, the Huang He (Yellow River) and the Yangtze ◦ Loess- fine yellow soil  As loess settles to the bottom, causes river to rise. Chinese constantly fought to build and repair dikes. Xinjiang and Mongolia- harsh climates with rugged terrain.
  • 40. Shang Dynasty Government- Noblewomen had power. ◦ Burial place of Fu Hao, wife of the king.  Burial Place ◦ Shang kings ruled small areas, known as clans  Clans- groups of families who claimed a common ancestor.  Many closely resembled Aryan India or city-states of Sumer PLAY MOVIE FIRST!!!!
  • 41. Shang Dynasty- Social  Royal Family Noble Warriors  Merchants/Artisans Peasants
  • 42. Shang Dynasty- Religious Beliefs
  • 43. Shang Dynasty- Religious Beliefs King was the link between people and
  • 44. Shang Dynasty- Religious BeliefsKing was the link between people andShang Di, main god.
  • 45. Shang Dynasty- Religious BeliefsKing was the link between people andShang Di, main god.
  • 46. Shang Dynasty- Religious BeliefsKing was the link between people andShang Di, main god. Rulers and kings (dead and alive) between gods were essential to a good harvest.
  • 47. Shang Dynasty- Religious BeliefsKing was the link between people andShang Di, main god. Rulers and kings (dead and alive) between gods were essential to a good harvest.
  • 48. Shang Dynasty- Religious BeliefsKing was the link between people andShang Di, main god. Rulers and kings (dead and alive) between gods were essential to a good harvest. Ancestors brought good luck for harvest.
  • 49. Shang Dynasty- Religious BeliefsKing was the link between people andShang Di, main god. Rulers and kings (dead and alive) between gods were essential to a good harvest. Ancestors brought good luck for harvest. PLAY MOVIE!!!
  • 50. Shang Dynasty- Yin and Yang Yin and Yang ◦ Yin- linked to Earth, darkness and female forces ◦ Yang- linked to Heaven, light and male forces  Forces not in opposition, but harmony
  • 51. Shang Dynasty- Writing
  • 52. Shang Dynasty- Writing
  • 53. Shang Dynasty- Writing Oracle Bones- used by priests to predict future, wrote on turtle shells or animal bones ◦ Would heat up bones till cracked, then interpreted the cracks as answers from the god
  • 54. Shang Dynasty- Writing Oracle Bones- used by priests to predict future, wrote on turtle shells or animal bones ◦ Would heat up bones till cracked, then interpreted the cracks as answers from the god Calligraphy- fine handwriting
  • 55. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www2.hawaii.edu/~kjolly/151/images/Shng-ora.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www2.hawaii.edu/~kjolly/151/04shangorac.htm&h=373&w=607&sz=100&tbnid=FKIas-tj2i4-XM:&tbnh=84&tbnw=136&prev=/images%3Fq%3Doracle%2Bbones&zoom=1&q=oracle+bones&usg=__nFnilEFmD1ZkYh4zFOv2Wh-Tw8A=&sa=X&ei=fj6rTJ7LKY_UtQOWuLntAw&ved=0CC0Q9QEwAw
  • 56. Zhou Dynasty
  • 57. Zhou Dynasty Mandate of Heaven- divine right to rule. ◦ Shang ruler was harsh, so gods punished him  Gave rule to Zhou who treated people well
  • 58. Zhou Dynasty Mandate of Heaven- divine right to rule. ◦ Shang ruler was harsh, so gods punished him  Gave rule to Zhou who treated people well Dynastic rule- rise and fall of dynasties ◦ If you were good, you enjoyed mandate of heaven  If bad, heaven would take back its support  Signs were flood and famine
  • 59. Zhou Dynasty (Cont.)
  • 60. Zhou Dynasty (Cont.) Feudalism- system of government in which local lords governed their own land but owed military service and other forms of support to the ruler.
  • 61. Zhou Dynasty (Cont.) Feudalism- system of government in which local lords governed their own land but owed military service and other forms of support to the ruler.
  • 62. Zhou Dynasty (Cont.) Feudalism- system of government in which local lords governed their own land but owed military service and other forms of support to the ruler. During Zhou, economy of China grew ◦ Iron replaced wood, stone and bronze.  Peasants grew new crop- soybeans, used large scale irrigation techniques
  • 63. Zhou Dynasty (Cont.)
  • 64. Zhou Dynasty (Cont.) Used money for first time. ◦ Coins had holes in the center so they could be strung on cords  Made trade easier  Feudal lords built roads and canals for travel