Ancient india

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describes the architectural style of ancient india

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Ancient india

  1. 1. Ancient India
  2. 2. The Deccan Indo-Gangetic Plain Northern Mountain Region Geography Three Mountain ranges- Himalaya s (“place of the snow”)- Highest mountain range in the world, form 1,500 mile long wall Karakoram – Join the Himalayas in current day Pakistan Hindu-Kush – Khyber pass at border of Afghanistan and Pakistan The Indo-Gangetic Plain- The plain formed by the Indus and Ganges Rivers The Deccan – The interior plateau separated from the Indo-Gangetic Plain by the Vindhya Mountains (traditionally said to divide the cultures of the North & South) Chapter 3, Sect ion 1
  3. 3. Climate Monsoons Seasonal Winds – November until February or March winds blow from North & Northwest – any moisture carried falls on North slope of Himalayas – by the time it reaches India it is very dry Mid-June through October winds blow from the Southwest, bringing warm moist air from the Indian Ocean Chapter 3, Sect ion 1
  4. 4. Indus River Valley 2500-1500 BC Harappan Civilization Mohenjo Daro & Harappa – major cities Detailed City Planning- Planned pattern for streets (Grid-like) Municipal water systems Public Baths City Sewer System w/private homes connected Strong Central Fortress (Citadel) Central Graineries Buildings built w/Baked Bricks (stronger than mud bricks) Agriculture- - domesticated cattle, sheep, pigs, & goats - grew crops including cotton, wheat, & rice - used irrigation & flood control Industry- - Artisans produced cotton cloth, pottery, bronze items, & jewelry of gold & silver Written Language- - pictographs, as yet not translated, unable to connect to other languages Why did this civilization decline? Chapter 3, Sect ion 1
  5. 5. Indo-Aryans Nomads from the Steppes - Called themselves Aryans - Came through the mountain passes (Khyber) The Vedic Age 1500 – 1000 B.C. - Vedas the great literature of the Aryans, stories of their history, religion, & customs - History recorded by “word of Mouth” until written language (Sanskrit) was developed Religion- - As recorded in the Vedas, they were gods of nature - No temples, used open spaces with altars - Used sacrifice to honor the gods - Over time Brahmins (priests) were needed to perform sacrifices Early Society- - Formed villages, changed from Nomadic ways to farming - Villages eventually combined to form city-states - A “Raja” (prince or king) ruled each city-state, he was military leader, lawmaker, & judge, he was assisted by a royal council, friends, & relatives - Separation in social class between Aryans & conquered inhabitants Economy- Farming – Wheat & Barley principal crops Also rice, sugar cane, leafy vegetables, gourds, peas, beans, & lentils Trading - limited, barter system, poor transportation Chapter 3, Sect ion 2 Non-Aryans Warriors & Brahmins (priests) Merchants, Artisans, & Farmers Farm Workers & Servants Rajah
  6. 6. Southern India -Separated from Northern India by Vindhya Mts. -Developed separate cultures & economies -Even groups within the southern region were fragmented -Coast dwellers developed a robust trading economy -many groups developed a “Matriarchal” society Chapter 3, Sect ion 2
  7. 7. Chapter 3, Sect ion 3 Hinduism & Buddhism Vedanta (end of the Vedas) - started around 700 B.C. - Questioned authority of Brahmins - Ideas expressed in written form (the Upanishads- a philosophical explanation of the Vedic religion) - Complex, hard for most people to understand - Simple stories (folk tales) used to teach common man called epics - Two epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana - Mahabharata includes Bhagavad Gita , or “Song of the Lord” - These were the bases for both Hinduism and the Caste System The Caste System -Four distinct Varmas (social classes) - Brahmins (priests, scholars, wise men) -Kshatriyas (Warriors) -Vaisyas (Merchants, traders, artisans, farm owners) -Sudras (peasants, laborers) -Outside the Social Structure - Pariahs, or Untouchables (those who by birth inherited impure professions, such as skinning animals, caring for corpses, etc.) - System became more strict over time -subgroups, or jati were formed -people required to operate socially within their own group Pariahs or Untouchables Brahmins (priests) Kshatriyas (warriors) Vaisyas (merchants, artisans, & farmers) Sudras (farm workers & servants)
  8. 8. Hinduism Polytheistic - 3 greater gods (although Hindu’s believe that everything is “one”) Brahma - The Creator Vishnu - The Preserver Siva - The Destroyer Many lesser gods dealing with nature & human nature They believe that all life is sacred Hindu Beliefs – Monism - Mind & matter are ultimately the same Maya – The world of our senses is only illusion Reincarnation – rebirth of the soul into a different body form based on your Karma & Dharma Dharma – The fulfillment of moral duty Karma – Positive or Negative force generated by a person’s actions & attitude Both the Caste System & the Hindu Religion provided a strict social structure which allowed society to function more smoothly Chapter 3, Sect ion 3
  9. 9. Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama – born around 563 B.C., founder. son of a prince, grew up in luxury pondered why suffering exists, and what is the value of life At age 29 determined to spend the rest of his life seeking answers After six years he believed that he had found the answers, and at that point he became the Buddha, or the Enlightened One Chapter 3, Sect ion 3 Buddha’s Teachings – The Four Noble Truths 1. All human life involves suffering & sorrow 2. Desire for a life of pleasure & material gain causes suffering & sorrow. 3. Renouncing desire frees people from suffering & helps souls attain Nirvana 4. Eightfold Path leads to renunciation, or denial of desire & attainment of Nirvana. Nirvana – the perfect peace, which releases the soul from endless reincarnation The Eightfold Path 1. Right views, seeing life as it is 2. Right intentions 3. Right speech 4. Right action 5. Right living 6. Right effort 7. Right mindfulness 8. Right concentration Buddhism split into two major branches- Theraveda – regarded Buddha as a great spiritual teacher Mahayana – regarded Buddha as a god or savior developed Buddhism as a religion with Temples & Priests Spread throughout China, Korea, & Japan fairly quickly, and is now worldwide
  10. 10. Mauryan Empire: (321 BC-232 BC) <ul><li>Founded by Chandragupta Maurya </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conquered most of northern India (main rivals Nunda Family) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grandson of Chandragupta - Asoka </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conqueror the rest of Northern & Central India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated his people with kindness after conversion to Buddhism </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Mauryan Empire: (321 BC-232 BC) <ul><li>Achievements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread Buddhism throughout India & the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved roads (linked to silk roads) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged Science, Math, & Medicine </li></ul></ul>After Asoka died a series of weak rulers allowed The Empire to collapse, allowing India to fall Into a 500 year period of civil war between small Provinces and foreign intervention.
  12. 12. Gupta Empire: (320-535 AD) 321-232 BC Mauryan Empire
  13. 13. Gupta Empire: (320-535 AD) <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United northern India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted trade with other nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called “Golden Age of Hinduism” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased influence of the Caste System on Indian society (further dividing society) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empire broken up during Hun invasion </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Gupta Empire: (320-535 AD) <ul><li>Achievements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed the “Zero” (0), infinity, and decimal numbers (Great mathematician – Aryabhata) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote plays & poems in Sanskrit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traded with Chinese, Persians, Byzantines, and Romans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created vaccines for diseases (Great doctor – Susrata) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Chapter 3, Sect ion 5 Life & Culture Economy: -Agriculture basis for economy for most of India -under the Gupta Empire trade became increasingly important -Southern India economy based in trade -The wealthy rajas taxed farmers heavily to support their lifestyle and conquests Women in Northern India were generally subordinate to men -laws supported this idea -Polygyny allowed men to have more than one wife -Suttee, voluntary death on husbands funeral pyre, common among upper class Women in the South fared better -Matriarchal society -could assume political leadership especially in the Tamil The Arts- Literature – Mahabharata & Ramayana Panchatantra (Five Books)- Popular fables that influenced later Arabian works Art & Architecture- Murals very popular (Caves at Ajanta) Religious sculptures (such as the Buddhas) Education- Very advanced, but generally reserved for the upper classes The Sciences Math & Astronomy- understood abstract numbers, negative numbers used Algebra Identified 7 of the planets without telescope Understood the rotation of the Earth Medicine- Surgeries included bone setting & plastic surgery developed technique of innoculation Built hospitals that were clean and light disinfected wounds

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