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Personality development – is theimprovement of behavioral traitssuch as communication skills,interpersonal relationships, attitudetowards life and restoring ourethics.
PERSONALITYDEVELOPMENT•is enhancing and dressingone’s outer and inner self orthe organized pattern ofbehaviors and attitudes thatmakes a person distinctive.
• Every one of us has a distinct character thatcan be developed, polished and refined.• This process includes1.boosting one’s confidence,2.improving communication skills,3.broadening ones knowledge,4.developing skills,5.learning fine etiquettes and manners,6.adding style and grace to the way one looks,talks and walks and7.overall imbibing oneself with positiveness,liveliness and peacefulness.
RECAP• What is Personality Development?• What are the processes involved indeveloping one’s personality?
JEAN PIAGETa Swiss psychologist, madethe most intensive study ofchildren’s cognitivedevelopment. He came upwith a series of distinctstages as children mature.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT1. Sensorimotor stage – during this period, infants arebusy discovering that relationships between their actionsand the consequences of these actions.2. Preoperational stage – between two to seven years,at this stage, the child learn to use language to representobjects by using words.3. Concrete Operational stage – seven to twelve years,by now the child can think logically about objects andevents.4. Formal Operational stage – ages twelve years andup, the child now thinks logically and becomesconcerned with the hypothetical, the future andideological problems.
ADAM SFERRA•In Adam Sferra’s PersonalityDevelopment and Public Relationbook, intelligent behavior definesthe general capacity of theindividual to think reasonably andto act with good judgment. It hasfive factors:
FACTORS1. The capacity to learn is determine byheredity and environment.2. Capacity for abstract thinking is hecapacity to think in terms of concepts.3. Mental alertness is quickness ofobservation, understanding and action.4. Sound judgment is the result of wisdom,common sense.5. General adaptability is the all aroundability to fit successfully into the variety ofsituations.
ERIK ERIKSON• a noted psychologist calls development as acontinuous process extending from birth throughadulthood. • He calls them psychosocial stages. They rangefrom the first year of life, second year, thirdthrough fifth years, six year to puberty,adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood,and the aging years.• Aging years, beginning 65, brings new problems.• Middle adulthood, ages 40-65, these yearsconstitute the most productive period.
SIGMUND FREUD• Sigmund Freud, developed the psychoanalytictheory that our actions are determined by innerforces and impulses that often operate at anunconscious level.Freud’s Structural Model of Personality• According to Freud, three elements of personality—known as the id, the ego, and the superego—work together to create complex humanbehaviors.
ID• The id is the only part of personality that is present at birth.• The id acts as the driving force behind personality.• It not only strives to fulfill our most basic urges, many ofwhich are tied directly to survival, it also provides all of theenergy necessary to drive personality.• During infancy, before the other components ofpersonality begin to form, children are ruled entirely bythe id.• Satisfying basic needs for food, drink, and comfort are ofthe utmost importance. As we grow older, it wouldobviously be quite problematic if we acted out to satisfythe needs of the id whenever we felt an urge, need, ordesire
EGO• The ego is part of personality that mediates thedemands of the id, the superego and reality. Theego prevents us from acting on our basic urges(created by the id), but also works to achieve abalance with our moral and idealistic standards(created by the superego).• While the ego operates in both the preconsciousand conscious, its strong ties to the id means thatit also operates in the unconscious.• The ego operates based on the reality principle,which works to satisfy the ids desires in a mannerthat is realistic and socially appropriate.
SUPEREGO• The superego is the component of personalitycomposed of our internalized ideals that we haveacquired from our parents and from society.• The superego works to suppress the urges of the idand tries to make the ego behave morally, ratherthan realistically.• The ideals that contribute to the formation of thesuperego include not just the morals and valuesthat we have learned from our parents, but alsothe ideas about right and wrong that we acquirefrom society and the culture in which we live.
SUPEREGO• Two components: the ego ideal and theconscience• The ego ideal is made up of all of our rules forgood behavior.• The conscience is composed of the rules forwhich behaviors are considered bad.• When we engage in actions that conform tothe ego ideal, we feel good about ourselvesor proud of our accomplishments. When wedo things that our conscience considers bad,we experience feelings of guilt.
• The primary action of the superego is to entirelysuppress any urges or desires of the id that areconsidered wrong or socially unacceptable. It also triesto force the ego to act morally rather than realistically.Finally, the superego strives for moral perfections,without taking reality into account.
ABRAHAM MASLOW• Abraham Maslow, is a leader in thedevelopment of humanisticpsychology, classified motives andconstructed a hierarchy of needs,ascending from the basic biologicalneeds to the most complexpsychological motives.
GOOD PERSONALITYAttributes of a person with “Goodpersonality”?Good physiquePleasing mannersPersonal and Professional integrityTrustworthiness and reliability• Good control over body and mind
HEALTHY BODYNutritionPersonal HygieneExercisingTraditional methods (Yoga)Modern methods (Gym, aerobics, etc.)Walking and joggingDisciplining of daily routines is a must!Mind control is essential for a healthy body.
WHEN IS MIND UNHEALTHY?Agitated mind is unhealthyWhat agitates human mind?Not getting what one desiresGetting what one dislikesUncontrolled emotions in the mindContinuous accumulation of such likes anddislikes stresses the mind out.Stress agitates the mind• Stressed mind is unhealthy
HEALTHY MINDStress-free mind is healthy and calmSuch calm mind can be controlled moreeasily• De-stressing the mind is needed:Prevention of accumulation of day-to-day complexesClearing the stockpile of storedcomplexitiesHOW?
CULTIVATING A HEALTHY MINDDocumented human experience of the past:Non-reactive observation of oneself mitigates thestrength of these complexesContinuous awareness makes this a continuousprocess: results in clearing the stockpileDifferent paths for removal of accumulatedcomplexes:Path of servicePath of intellectual analysisPath of devotionPath of meditation
SUMMARYGood Personality arises from a healthybody and healthy mindHealthy body needs a healthy mindHealthy mind can be achieved bypreventing accumulation ofcomplexes in mindNon-reactive self-observation de-stresses the mindThis is possible through several paths:paths of service, intellectual analysis,devotion or meditation
Know yourpersonalityCharacter traitsBehavioraltraitsAttitudinalChangeIntegrityInterpersonalSkillsPositiveAttitudeAcceptanceCommunicationSkillsWin-winsituationDisciplineLeadershipQualitiesKeep theend in mindDedicationStress and Timemanagement Synergies
TYPES OF PERSONALITYPerfectionistsHelpersRomanticsAchieversAssertersQuestionersAdventurersObservers andPeacemakers.
CONT..Perfectionists – are realistic, conscientious and principledEx: Narayan Murthy – Infosys.Helpers – are warn, concerned, nurturing and sensitive to otherpeople’s needsEx: Mother Teresa.Achievers – are eneagetic, optimistic, self assured and goalorientedEx: Sachin TendulkarRomantics – have sensitive feelings and are warm andperceptiveEx: M. F. Hussain – great Indian PainterObservers – have a need for knowledge and are introverted,curious, analytical and insightful.Ex: Amartya Sen - Great economist
CONT..Questioners – are responsible and trustworthy.Ex: Shabana AzmiAdventurers – are energetic, lively and optimistic.They want to contribute to the worldEx: Vijay Mallya - NRI businessman.Asserters – are direct, self-reliant, self confident andprotective.Ex: T. N. Seshan - Chief Election Commissioner.Peacemakers – are receptive, good-natured andsupportive. They seek union with others and theworld around them
IT CAN HELP IN THEFOLLOWING WAYS• To learn the business etiquette of exchanging cards,wishing on first meeting, bowing when you are visitingJapan and the like.• Voice modulation, diction, communication skills, phoneetiquette, hygiene, empowerment skills, timemanagement and positive thinking.• To cultivate a friendly, interactive manner. Essentialslike giving a speech, voice development andmodulation of voice.• It enhances the sense of confidence and self-worth.
PERSONALITY TESTThis can identify:Value systemEmotional reaction to a critical situationMoods and characteristic behaviour traits.Maturity in handling a crisis.Ability to adjust himself to the stress of day-to-dayexecutive lifestyle.Self-confidence, personal ambition, emotional controland sociability etc.
BODY LANGUAGEBody languagecommunicates much morethan words. Bodylanguage signals arecalled ‘leakages’ becauseyou may try to tellsomething, but the truth willleak out visually.
AVOID SUCH BODYLANGUAGE• Crossed arms or legs• Carrying books or papers across your chest• Slumped posture• Sitting perched on the edge of the chair• Wringing hands• Tapping foot• Rocking legs• Drumming fingers• Biting nails
CONT..• Fiddling with the jewelry or hair• Covering your mouth with your hand while talking• Rocking in your chair• Scratching a lot• Clearing your throat too much• Straightening your tie• Playing with watch or cufflinks• Hands in the pocket
LOOKING AGGRESSIVE• Arms folded across the chest• Staring• Pointing• Making a fist• Leaning over someone
BEHAVING RUDELYWorking when someone is talking to youPuffingSmirkingWhisperingCracking knucklesGrooming yourself’Standing too closePacking up folders and papers well before the meetingis overShaking hands too hard or limp handshakes
CONT..Yawning when the meeting is in progressLooking at your watch repeatedlyBlinking a lotFiddling with rings, watches, earrings and chainsTapping or clicking pensPlaying with paper clipsJingling money in pocketPicking at fingernailsTwiddling bits of hairSmoking
LEADERSHIP QUALITIESCourageSelf-controlA keen sense of justice and fairnessDefiniteness of plansThe habit of doing more than being paid forA pleasing personalitySympathy and understandingMastery of detailsWillingness to assume full responsibilityCo-operation
PERSONAL QUALITIES• accurate• adaptable• astute• can work under pressure• careful• committed• competent• cooperative• courteous
CONT..• extrovert• flexible• friendly• get on well with other people• good communicator• good sense of humour• good time-keeper• hard working• imaginative
CONT..• independent worker• lively• logical• loyal• self confident• self motivated• sensitive• thorough• thoughtful• vigilant• work well with others
Determinants of personalityBiological factorsFamily &Social factorsCultural factors Situational factorsHeredityBrainPhysical features1.Socialisation process(Behaviour from family &social group)2. Identification process( Selecting ideal person)3. Home environment(Brought up)4.Social Group.1. Independence- Australia2. Aggression- North Korea3. Competition- India4. Co-operation- Japan1.Positive behaviour2.Negative behaviour
TYPE A AND BType A Personality•Always moving,walking, and eatingrapidly.•Feel impatient with therate at which mostevents take place.•Strive to think or dotwo or more things atonce.•Cannot cope withleisure time.•Are obsessed withnumbers, measuringtheir success in termsof how many or howmuch of everything theyacquire.Type B Personality•Never suffer from asense of time urgencywith its accompanyingimpatience.•Feel no need todisplay or discusseither theirachievements oraccomplishmentsunless such exposureis demanded by thesituation.•Play for fun &relaxation, instead ofexhibit their superiorityat any cost.Can relax without guilt.
BIG 5 IN SHORT…Personality Factors Characters1. Conscientiousness2. Agreeableness3. Neuroticism4. Openness5. ExtroversionCareful, dependable andself disciplinedCourteous, good natured,empathic and caring.Poised, secure and calm.Sensitive, flexible, creative andcurious.Outgoing and cautious.
THANK YOUProf. Sneh Anand, Dr. P.V.M. Rao and Dr. M.R.Ravi National Resource Centre forValue Education in Engineering (NRCVEE), IIT Delhihttp://psychology.about.com/od/personalitydevelopment/a/personality-dev.htm