INTRODUCTION OFPSYCHO-ANALYTICAL THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
PSYCHOANLYTICAL THEORIES EMPHASIS ONPSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCEPERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT. THE MAIN CONTRIBUTOR TO THISTHEORY IS “SIGMUND FREUD”. HE DISCOVEREDTHAT PEOPLE HAVE UNCONSCIOUS NEEDS, DRIVES,MOTIVES AND DESIRES FOR PERSONALITYDEVELOPMENT. PEOPLE DEVELOPS THEIRPERSONALITY WHEN FACING PHYSICAL & MENTALPROBLEMS UNDER SOME SPECIFIC SYSTEMS.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)• Had medical background- wanted to do “neurophysiological research”• Private practice with specialty in neurology• Early 1900s published many works-- – Interpretation of Dreams (1900) – The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901) – 1906 Psychoanalytic Society formed • DIED OF JAW CANCER IN 1939.
3 Levels of Awareness• Conscious• Preconscious• Unconscious
Conscious• Current contents of your mind that you actively think of• What we call working memory• Easily accessed all the time
Preconscious• Contents of the mind you are not currently aware of• Thoughts, memories, knowledge, wishes, feelings• Available for easy access when needed
Unconscious• Contents kept out of conscious awareness• Not accessible at all• Processes that actively keep these thoughts from awareness
Unconscious framework includes three conflictingpsychoanalytical concepts:-• The Id• The Ego• The super Ego
What is Id?THE ID- Id is the mind’s instinctive energy.Id is the source of psychic energy & seeks immediate satisfaction of biological pleasures. (UNREAL & THEORETICAL CONCEPTION) Desires and wishes of an individual exist at the unconscious state which is known as Id.• Resides completely at the unconscious level• Acts under the pleasure principle – immediate gratification, not willing to compromise – Generates all of the personality’s energy – Demands immediate pleasure at whatever cost – It provides the mental force to face problems. As an individual matures, he learns to control the Id, but even then it remains a driving force throughout life and becomes an important source of behavior.
What is Ego? Ego is a real and practical experience.• Resides in all levels of awareness• Operates under “reality principle”• It translates the energy of Id into action.• Attempts negotiation between Id and Superego to satisfy both realistically The ego of a person keeps the Id in check whenever it demands immediate pleasure. Ego controls the Id so that the pleasures Unconciously demanded by human beings
What is Super Ego?It is the higher level force to restrain the Id.• The moralist and idealistic part of the personality• Resides in preconscious – Operates on “ideal principle” – Begins forming at 4-5 yrs of age – initially formed form environment and others (society, family etc) – Internalized conventions and morals – Essentially your “conscience “ i.e sense of judging what is wrong and what is right.
Inter relation between the Id, Ego,& Super Ego…….Their must be a proper balance in the relationship among these forces to create a normal personality.For Eg. Super Ego If Super Ego is over Id Ego developed, man will become very impractical and irrational. He will feel guilty over trivial matters…Such a person cant exist in modern world…
Oral Stage (0-18 months)– The Infant first experiences social contact with the outside world through mouth-CryingDrinkingLaughingEating– Focus: weaning- becoming less dependent
Anal (18-35 months) Primary sources of pleasure is the process of elimination.– Fixation on bowel and bladder elimination– Focus: search for control Phallic (3-6 years) Child discovers himself. He realizes all his important organs i.e. eyes, hands, nose etc.. Focus: genital area and difference btwn males and females
Latency (6 yrs to puberty) Kids play with same sex others-- until puberty No significant impact of parents. The social process influences personality development. Genital (puberty and beyond) Adolescent starts feeling all senses seriously. Attachment with parents is reduced.
Freud: criticisms and critiques• He studied very few people so not representative sample• Process of psychoanalysis interviewing- exhibit preconceived notions and biases• His measures/methods were untreatable• Definitions don’t lend themselves to experimentation• One’s personality is fixed and unchanging• Obsessed with sex and aggression
Different Personality Pattern which influenceorganisational behavior are:-• AUTHORITARIANISM• MACHIAVELLIANISM• INTROVERSION & EXTROVERSION• TYPE ‘A’ & TYPE ‘B’ PERSONALITY• SELF CONCEPT & SELF ESTEEM• LOCUS OF CONTROL
AUTHORITARIANISM• A authoritarian personality tend to be rigid in their positions,• They place high moral value on their beliefs.• Strongly oriented towards conformity of rules & regulations.• Naturally prefer stable & structured work environments which are governed by clear rules & procedures.• Likely prefer autocratic or directive leadership.
MACHIAVELLIANISM• This personality trait is also known as ‘Mach’ is named after Niceolo Machiavelli.• An individual with high Mach is Pagmatic, maintains emotional distance, & believes that ends can justify means, manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less and persuade others more.• Successful when situations have minimum number of rules & regulations.• Have no hesitation using taking advantage of others in order to serve their own goals.• High self confidence & high self esteem.
INTROVERSION & EXTROVERSION• Introverts are:-Shy, quiet & retiringExcels at tasks that require thought & analytical skills.• Extroverts are:-Suitable for positions that require more interaction with others..
TYPE ‘A’ & TYPE ‘B’PERSONALITY• TYPE A :- People are impatient, aggressive, & highly competitive, work hard & are more productive. Negative side is that they are very impatient, more irritable, have poor judgement. Measures success by quantity, does two things at a time.• TYPE B :- Easy going, non-competitive. Do better in complex tasks involving judgement & accuracy rather than speed & hard work. Relaxes without guilt, has no pressing deadlines. Is never hurry, mild mannered.
SELF CONCEPT & SELF ESTEEM• Self concept denotes the extent to which they consistently regard themselves as capable, successful, important & worthy. Self concept (Both ‘I’ & ‘Me’) gives the individual a sense of meaningfulness and consistency.• People assignments & contribute to achieve organizational goals. Self esteem is directly related to the with high self esteem tend to take challenging expectations for success. High self esteem people believe that they possess the ability needed to succeed at work.
LOCUS OF CONTROL• Personality is developed on the basis of person’s locus of control which is how one perceives the locus of control in one’s life.• Locus of control was formulated within the framework of Rotter’s social learning theory of personality.
THANK YOU ALL FOR LISTENINGTO ME PATIENTLY. HAVE A NICE DAYBY AMITA SHARMA