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Gerunds and infinitives
 

Gerunds and infinitives

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    Gerunds and infinitives Gerunds and infinitives Document Transcript

    • Gerunds and Infinitives<br />Here is a brief review of the differences between gerunds and infinitives. Gerunds are formed with ING:walking, talking, thinking, listening Infinitives are formed with TO:to walk, to talk, to think, to listen Gerunds and infinitives can do several jobs: Both gerunds and infinitives can be the subject of a sentence::Writing in English is difficult.To write in English is difficult. Both gerunds and infinitives can be the object of a verb::I like writing in English.I like to write in English. But...Only gerunds can be the object of a preposition::We are talking about writing in English. It is often difficult to know when to use a gerund and when to use an infinitive. These guidelines may help you: Gerunds are often used when actions are real, concrete or completed::I stopped smoking.(The smoking was real and happened until I stopped.) Infinitives are often used when actions are unreal, abstract, or future::I stopped to smoke.(I was doing something else, and I stopped; the smoking had not happened yet.) <br />Infinitive and Gerund<br /> HYPERLINK "http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/infinitive-gerund" l "exercises" Exercises and Tests on Infinitive and Gerund<br />There are certain words in English that are usually followed by an infinitive or gerund. If you are not sure whether to use the infinitive or gerund, check out our lists or look the words up in a dictionary.<br />Infinitive<br />Use<br />Certain words are followed by an infinite verb with or without ‘to’.<br />Use and Word ListsExampleas the subject of a clauseTo know you is to love you.after certain expressions (without ‘to’)Why not go to the cinema?after certain verbs (without ‘to’)I can swim.after certain verbs (with ‘to’)He wants to swim.after certain verbs with interrogatives (infinitive constructions)They don’t know how to swim.after certain verbs with objects (without ‘to’)He made her swim.after certain verbs with objects (with ‘to’)They wanted him to swim.after certain adjectives and their comparisonsIt’s easier to swim downstream.after nouns deriving from the verbs mentioned aboveWe made a promise to swim. (derived from the verb ‘to promise’)<br />Gerund<br />Forming form of the verb<br />Exceptions in Spelling<br />See -> HYPERLINK "http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/present-progressive/exceptions" Present Progressive – Exceptions<br />Use<br />Certain words are followed by an Ing-Form.<br />Use and Word ListsExampleas the subject of a clauseCycling is good for your health.after certain adjectivesHe’s afraid of going by plane.after certain prepositionsBefore going to bed he turned off the lights.after certain verbsI enjoy cooking.after certain verbs with prepositionsI am looking forward to seeing you again.after certain nounsWe had problems finding our way back home.<br />Words followed either by Infinitive or Ing-Form<br />Use and Word ListsExamplesame meaningI started to read. / I started reading.same meaning but different useShe forbids us to talk. / She forbids talking.different meaningHe stopped to smoke. / He stopped smoking.infinitive or present participleI saw him go up the stairs. / I saw him going up the stairs.<br />Exercise on Infinitive and Gerund<br />Principio del formulario<br />Infinitive or Gerund<br />Choose the correct form (infinitive with or without to or gerund).<br />We managed …………………… in time.(to arrive, to arriving, arriving) <br />We asked her ........................... her question. (to repeat, to repeating, repeating)<br />He insisted on …………………… the bill. (paying,to paying,to paying)<br />I used ……………………. up early. (to get,to getting,getting)<br />I am used to ………………….. up early.(getting,to get, to getting) <br />I would rathber ………………… at home. (stay, staying, to staying)<br />I spent a lot of time ………………… the essay. (to writing, wrinting,to write,)<br />Why should they …………………….. this? (to do, to doing, doing)<br />I am looking forward to……………….. from you soon. (hearing, to hearing, to hear,)<br />You had better ……………………….. the bus. (to take, to taking,taking)<br />Gerund used as a subject<br />Complete the sentences with the gerund form of the verbs in parentheses.<br />……………… is one of her hobbies. ( to cook, to cooking, cooking)<br />………………. is fun. (cycling, to cycling, )<br />……………… a good job is not easy. (getting, to get, to getting9<br />……………… a parking space is quite difficult in this area.(finding, to find, to finding) <br />………………. becomes more and more expensive. ( to drive, to driving driving)<br />No ……………. in this area.(smoking, to smoke, to smoking) <br />………………… overtime is quite common in this company.(working, to work, to working,) <br />………………… fruits and vegetables is good for your health. (eating, to eating to eat)<br />………………… fun of other people is not nice. (to make, to making, making)<br />……………….. about other cultures makes people more tolerant (leaning, to learn to learning)<br />Decide whether to use Infinitive (with/without to) or Gerund.<br />What can we do ………………. a healthy life? (to live, live, to living)<br />In our society, people spend more and more time ……………….(woking, to working,to work) <br />So we often don't bother ……………… healthy meals. (prepare, to prepare, preparing,) <br />In order ……………….. time, we tend ……………… fast food. (to save, to saving, saving,) (to buy, to buying, buying)<br />At fast food restaurants, we can ………….. quite a lot without ………………... a fortune.<br />(to eat, to eating, eating) (to have to pay, having to pay, to having to pay) <br />And children enjoy ……………. chips and burgers and ……………… lemonade and cola. (eating to eat to eating) ( drinking, to drink, to drinking) <br />That's a problem because eating habits are hard …………….. ( to shaking, to shake, shaking )<br />The high amount of carbohydrates in fast food and sugary drinks is blamed for …………………….. the body's regulation of appetite. ( to destablish, to destablishing, destablishing)<br />So we keep on ……………………. more.(wanting to eat, to wanting to eat, wanting to eat) <br />Bad eating habits result in people ………………… obese. (becoming, to becoming, to becoming) <br />Obese people risk ………………….. from heart diseases.( suffering, to suffering, to suffer) <br />We can ………………….. such diseases by ………………… healthy food.( avoid risking, to avoid risking, to avoid risk) (choosing to eat, to choosing to eat, to choose to eat) <br />Be careful though. Some people are convinced ………………. something for their health by ………….. on energy bars or cornflakes.( to do, to doing, to do)(living, to live, to living) <br />And this is what the advertising for these products wants …………. us ……………………. ( to make, to making, to making)(think, to think to thinking)<br />In reality, however, these foods are often heavily sugared ………………….. them flavour.<br />( to give, to giving, to give) <br />But sugar is not mentioned as clearly as the low fat - that's why experts warn against ………………… on the ads.( relying, to relying, to rely) <br />To live a healthy life, we ought ………………… our food wisely.( to choose, to choosing, choosing) <br />We should ………… regular meals and ……………….. ways of ………………… more<br />(eat, to eat, eating,)(try to find, to try to find, trying to find,)(Exercising, to exercise, to exercising)<br />