The Road To War


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The Road To War

  1. 1. The Road to War<br />Haven’t We Been Here Before?<br />
  2. 2. Preventative Steps Taken<br /> League of Nations 1919<br />Treaty of Versailles<br />Organization to promote peace<br />All the world powers are members by 1934 except United States<br />
  3. 3. Preventative Steps Taken<br />Kellogg-Briand Pact<br />Agreement signed by 15 nations in 1928 and grows to over 60 nations<br />The contracting parties agreed that settlement of all conflicts, no matter of what origin or nature, that might arise among them should be sought only by pacific means and that war was to be renounced as an instrument of national policy<br />Original members included: USA, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan<br />
  4. 4. Manchuria<br />Japan invades Manchuria<br />Why? (3 reasons: see next slide)<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />
  5. 5. <ul><li>Japan invades Manchuria
  6. 6. Why? (3 reasons: see next slide)
  7. 7. 1
  8. 8. 2
  9. 9. 3</li></li></ul><li>Manchuria<br />Japan invades Manchuria for:<br />(1) Source of raw materials<br />(2) Source of market for Japanese goods<br />(3) Strategic location for attack on China<br />
  10. 10. Reactions<br />Chiang Kai-shek (President of China) upset over aggression<br />League of Nations investigates and agrees Japan in wrong<br />40 – 1 vote,<br />Japan walks out<br />No economic sanctions imposed<br />What could be used?<br />The League was powerless to stop a powerful, determined country<br />Chiang Kai-shek, FDR, Winston Churchill<br />
  11. 11. Hyperinflation Sets In Germany<br />
  12. 12. Cause and Reaction<br />France and Britain wanted payments<br />Germany tried printing more money<br />Bartering became common<br />Ruhr Valley taken over as payment<br />
  13. 13. People collected their wages in suitcases.<br />One person, who left their suitcase unattended, found that a thief had stolen the suitcase but not the money.<br />One boy, who was sent to buy two bread buns, stopped to play football and by the time he got to the shop, the price had gone up, so he could only afford to buy one.<br />One father set out for Berlin to buy a pair of shoes. When he got there, he could only afford a cup of coffee and the bus fare home.<br />
  14. 14. Rise of Hitler<br />Failed artist<br />WW1 veteran<br />Blames: Weimar Republic and Jews<br />Weimar Republic cooperates in supporting Versailles Treaty<br />Germany forced to make reparations payments<br />Jews controlled many financial sectors in Germany<br />
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  18. 18. Hitler Comes to Power<br />Nazi party gained powerful allies…newspaper and radio owners<br />Hitler’s message got favorable support (25 pt. Plan) <br />Voters liked what party promised: jobs, stable prices, and pride<br />Appointed Chancellor in 1933<br />Quit League of Nations same year<br />
  19. 19. Under Hitler’s Control<br />Sets fire to Reichstag building<br />Blames Communist enemies<br />Urges crackdown on civil liberties to prevent revolution in country<br />
  20. 20. Night of Long Knives<br />Arrested many powerful members of Nazi Party <br />Executed up to 400 potential threats<br />Also called a purge<br />
  21. 21. Nuremberg Laws<br />Passes Nuremberg Laws 1935<br />Stripped Jews of rights<br />Modeled after Jim Crow Laws <br />Kristallnacht 1938 : destruction of Jewish stores, synagogues etc. …went unpunished<br />
  22. 22. Jewish operated business in Berlin<br />Town with synagogues destroyed<br />
  23. 23. Italy Invades Ethiopia 1935<br />Benito Mussolini wants to recapture greatness of Roman Empire<br />Ethiopia a former colony, won freedom in late 1800s<br />King Haile Selassie protests to League of Nations<br />Warns of future attacks<br />League imposes sanctions: ineffective<br />
  24. 24. Germany Begins Rearmament<br />Hitler begins restoring economy<br />Military given top priority<br />Marches into Rhineland 1935-1936<br />Violation of Versailles<br />Nothing done about this<br />
  25. 25. Rome-Berlin Axis Agreement<br />Italy and Germany realized they needed each others support if war breaks out<br />Signed in 1936<br />“Axis on which the world will revolve”<br />Later Japan signs (1937)<br />
  26. 26. Anschluss of Austria 1938<br />1st attempt to gain land outside German border<br />Goal: Reunite all German speaking people under 1 government<br />Used a plebiscite to secure Austria<br />Plebiscite: vote on an issue<br />Jews not allowed to vote<br />Political opponents were arrested before vote<br />Pro-Nazi prime minister in power<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Sudetenland<br />Hitler wants to add region in Czechoslovakia<br />Formerly part of Germany<br />Czechoslovakia balks at Hitler’s attempts<br />Britain and France come to Czechoslovakia’s aid<br />
  29. 29. Munich Conference<br />Hitler graciously hosts meeting in 1938<br />Neville Chamberlain represents Britain<br />Chamberlain appeases Hitler by giving him Sudetenland in exchange for promises of peace and no further land claims<br />Czechoslovakia sold out<br />
  30. 30. “Peace in Our Time”<br />
  31. 31. NAZI Greeting in Sudetenland<br />
  32. 32. Czechoslovakia 1939<br />Hitler annexes the rest of the country <br />Britain and France do nothing<br />
  33. 33. Molotov – Ribbentrop Pact 1939<br />Hitler wants to avoid 2 front war (Russia and France)<br />Seeks non-aggression pact<br />Russia and Germany share mutual dislike for Poland<br />Agree to attack Poland and split land back to old borders<br />
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  35. 35. Phony War<br />Why would this period from 1928 – 1939 be called the phony war?<br />