CAUSES OF WWIIThe Treaty of Versailles and the Failure of the League of Nations
Treaty of VersaillesIn 1919, Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France andWoodrow Wilson from the US met to discuss how Germany was to be made to pay forthe damage world war one had caused.Woodrow Wilson wanted a treaty based on his 14-point plan which he believed wouldbring peace to Europe.Georges Clemenceau wanted revenge. He wanted to be sure that Germany could neverstart another war again.Lloyd George personally agreed with Wilson but knew that the British public agreed withClemenceau. He tried to find a compromise between Wilson and Clemenceau.Germany (Weimar Republic) had been expecting a treaty based on Wilsons 14 pointsand were not happy with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. However, they had nochoice but to sign the document.The main terms of the Treaty of Versailles were:1.War Guilt Clause - Germany should accept the blame for starting World War One2.Reparations - Germany had to pay £6,600 million for the damage caused by thewar3.Disarmament - Germany was only allowed to have a small army and six navalships. No tanks, no airforce and no submarines were allowed. The Rhineland areawas to be de-militarised.4.Territorial Clauses - Land was taken away from Germany and given to othercountries. Anschluss (union with Austria) was forbidden.
QUICK WRITEHow is the League of Nations going to be ineffective in preventing WWII?
The Importance of the RhinelandRhineland Invasion, March 1936
Hitlers plans for CzechoslovakiaSudetenland Invasion, October 1938
HITLER’S ACTIONS: RHINELANDInvasion-1936 Demilitarized Zone (Treaty of Versailles says Hitler can’t have any military there) Hitler invades the land, and no one stops him, the surrounding countries “appeased” him Germany was not supposed to have a military after WWI, and Hitler built up the military and then moved into the Demilitarized ZoneAt this point the German army was not very strong andcould have been easily defeated. Yet neither France nor Britain was prepared to start another war.
HITLER’S ACTIONS: MAKING ALLIANCES Hitler made 3 important alliances during 1930’s: He created the Axis powers: Germany, Japan and Italy First was called the Rome-Berlin Axis Pact and allied Hitlers Germany with Mussolinis Italy. Second was called the Anti-Comitern Pact and allied Germany with Japan.Hitler makes a “non- aggression” pact with Stalin known as the Nazi-Soviet Pact, 1939: Hitler will not invade Russian territory and Stalin will not invade Germany Under the terms of the agreement, both countries promised to remain neutral if either country became involved in a war.Germany’s not allowed to make alliances (Treaty of Versailles)
HITLER’S ACTIONS: GERMAN EXPANSION Anschluss- bring Germany and Austria together (Hitler is not allowed to unite the two countries)-1938 “invade” Austria (The Austrian leader was forced to hold a vote asking the peoplewhether they wanted to be part of Germany. The results of the vote were fixed and showed that 99% The Austrian leader asked Britain, of Austrian people wanted Anschluss) France and Italy for aid. -France and England appeased Hitler again, (Hitler promised thatAnschluss was the end of his expansionist aims and not wanting to risk war, the other countries did nothing.)
HITLER’S ACTIONS: GERMAN EXPANSION CONTINUED Hitler Lied!six months later he demanded that the Sudetenland (a region ofCzechoslovakia) be handed over to Germany.1938: Hitler moves into Sudetenland, newly created land after WWIMunich Agreement- Chamberlain tells Hitler he can have theSudetenland, but has to stop there. Hitler promises. He lied:March 1939 invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia. Despite callsfor help from the Czechoslovak government, neither Britain norFrance was prepared to take military action against Hitler.Hitler and Stalin have the pact, so Hitler makes the finalchoice….
DALADIER: “Fools, why are they cheering”In April, 1938, Daladier once again became prime minister of France. He was a supporter of appeasement and on 29th September, 1938, he joined with Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain and Benito Mussolini in signing the Munich Agreement. He was welcomed back into France by a cheering crowd upon his return from Munich, Germany; Daladier reportedly said to his aid "[a]h, les cons!" ("ah, the fools!"). When France fell to Germany in June of 1940, Daladier was one of thosewho sought to escape to French North Africa to set up a government-in-exile He was captured and De Gaulle took over the government in exile.
CHAMBERLAIN “Peace in our Time” In May 1937, Neville Chamberlain became Prime Minister of Britain. He believed that the Treaty of Versailles had treated Germany badly and thatthere were a number of issues associated with the Treaty that needed to be put right. He felt that giving in to Hitlers demands would prevent another war. This policy, adopted by Chamberlains government became known as the policy of Appeasement.
CHURCHILL“They had to choose between war and dishonor; they chose dishonor they will have war”British politician who had long warned of the Nazi threat. In May, 1940, he became Prime Minister and Minister of Defense in England and remained in office until 1945.
-HAILE SELASSIE"Throughout history, it has been the inaction of those who could have acted; the indifference of those who should have known better; the silence of the voice of justice when it mattered most; that has made it possible for evil to triumph." - Haile Selassie emperor of Ethiopia, 1935
OTHER EXPANSIONS THE LEAGUE COULD NOT STOP In 1931, Japan was hit badly by the depression. People lost faith in the government and turned to the army to find a solution. The army invaded Manchuria in China, an arearich in minerals and resources. China appealed to the League for help . The Japanese government were told to order the army to leave Manchuria immediately. However, the Japanese army took no notice of the government and continued its conquest of Manchuria. The League then called for countries to stop trading with Japan but because of the depression many countries did not want to risk losing trade and did not agree to therequest. The League then made a further call for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japans response was to leave the League of Nations.In October 1935, Italy invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia). The Abyssinians did not have the strength to withstand an attack by Italy and appealed to the League of Nations for help.The League condemned the attack and called on member states to impose trade restrictions with Italy. However, the trade restrictions were not carried out because they would have little effect. Italy would be able to trade with non-member states, particularly America. Furthermore, Britain and France did not want to risk Italy making an attack on them.
IMMEDIATE CAUSE OF WWII: HITLER TAKES POLAND France and Britian promised Poland that if Hitler invades, they will declare war September 1, 1939: Hitler used the Blitz and invaded Poland for Lebensraum France and England kept their word, protect Poland Policy of appeasement was over, WWII began!Stalin did not declare war because of the pact, but Hitler will soon break their agreement too