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Germany 1918 33 overview


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Germany 1918 33 overview

  1. 1. Year 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933President Ebert HindenburgSummary Many problems ending in hyperinflation Stresemann‟s “golden years” Great DepressionEvents Nov 1918- Kaiser abdicates- Ebertin chargeJan 1919- Spartacist(Communist) Putsch iscrushed by the Freikorps.Elections held and Constitution agreed, but noparty wins a majority so weak coalitions due toProportional Representation.Treaty of Versailles damages German economyand many angry at government.1920- Kapp Putsch launched by Freikorps. Onlyfails because of „passive resistance‟.Jan 1923- France and Belgium invade the Ruhr asGermany stops paying reparations.Ebert orders „passive resistance‟- prints money topay workers = hyperinflation.November- Hitler angry=Munich Putsch fails.To deal with hyperinflation,Stresemannresumes paying reparations = veryunpopular and new currency introduced-Rentenmark.As a result, hyperinflation ends,but no compensation for lost savings.1924- Dawes Plan- huge US loans =government spending = jobs/happy people.(But,always at least 1 million unemployed).1925- Locarno Treaty- peace agreement =1926- Germany let in League of NationsNo attempted putsches 1924-29 as life wasgood for most people = no need for change.1929- Young Plan- less and longer to payOctober 1929- Wall StreetCrash. US loans recalled- manybusinesses fail- 6m unemployed,23m rely on benefits. GreatDepression = votes for extremistparties increases.• Hindenburg uses Article 48, butgovt. can’t solve problems. Taxesraised/benefits lowered andpolitical violence increases.• Hindenburg tries to findalternatives to Hitler as chancellor(Brϋnning, von Papen,vonSchleicher). All three fail.January 1933- Hitlermadechancellorbut in weak position.Nazis • Set up as anti-Communist party in 1918.• Hitler joins and soonleader- great speaker.• Anti-Jew, ToV, democracy and Communism.• Munich Putsch fails. Hitler arrested but histrial gains himpublicity = sent to prison.• Hitler released from prison having writtenMein Kampf- plans to win power throughdemocratic means.• Reorganises the party, but only gets 3% ofvote- too anti-Jewish, SA too violent and life isgood so people aren‟t interested.Goebbels = Nazi propaganda. SAsoup kitchens. SA violence = richon side = allows use of technology= more effective propaganda.Hitler a great speaker and flexiblepolicies.Weimar Germany 1918-33