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Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
Biosphere fc-fw
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Biosphere fc-fw

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Transcript

  • 1. The Biosphere
  • 2. What is Ecology?• Ecology- the study of relationships between organisms and their environment.
  • 3. Levels of Ecological Organization• Biosphere- the entire planet: land air, water, atmosphere• Biome- a group of ecosystems that have the same climate & dominant communities.• Ecosystem- a collection of LIVING organisms AND the ENVIRONMENT of a particular area.• Community- all organisms that live w/in an ecosystem.• Population- all members of the same species in an area• Species- organisms that can interbreed reproduce fertile offspring
  • 4. Diversity• The measure of the number of living things in an ecosystem.
  • 5. What Determines Diversity?• 1)Size of ecosystem.• 2) Latitude of ecosystem. – a) more sunlight promotes growth – b) longer growing season=more producers – c) more producers = more consumers
  • 6. Ways to Study Ecology? 1) Observation 2)Experimenting 3)Modeling
  • 7. Energy in Ecosystems• Producers- take energy from surroundings & store it in complex molecules. – Photosynthetic- plants, (some) bacteria, algae – Chemosynthesis- bacteria, algae – AKA autotrophs – *Sunlight- main source of energy; source of – life.
  • 8. • Consumers- consume/eat other organism – Animals, most protists, bacteria and fungi – AKA heterotrophs
  • 9. 3 Types of Consumers• 1) Herbivores• 2) Carnivores• 3) Omnivores• 4) Detritivores- organisms that feed on dead material. Mites, earthworms, snails, crabs, etc.
  • 10. Food Chain
  • 11. Who Eats Who?• Food Chain- – Straight line sequence depicts simple feeding relationships and illustrates the path of energy transfer.
  • 12. Food Web
  • 13. Who Eats Who…• Food web- – Shows complex relationship of ecosystem through overlapping food chains. – Network of feeding relationships• Keystone species- – Most important species in a food web – Cannot be easily replaced – Affects every other species
  • 14. Energy Flow in an Ecosystem• Energy flows through an ecosystem from the sun to producers, to consumers. Each step in the series of organisms eating other organisms is called a trophic level (eating level)
  • 15. Trophic Levels• Group of organisms whose energy source is the same number of steps from the sun.• Autotrophs- plants & other organisms that make their own food. (1st trophic level)• Herbivores- animals that eat plants (2nd trophic level)• Omnivores-eats both plants & animals• Heterotrophs- cannot make own food feed on other organisms waste (above
  • 16. How many trophic levels are possible?• Few ecosystems have more than 4 or 5 trophic levels because energy diminishes at each level.• Energy pyramids- represent the energy present at each level of the food web.

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