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What is a system?• A group of tissues (organs) work togetherto do a task.• Ex) digestive system, circulatory system,immune...
Overview of Body’sDefensesNon-Specific Defenses Specific DefensesFirst Line of Defense Second Line ofDefenseImmune Respons...
Non-Specific Defense• Similar to “walls of a fort” protect by keepingpathogens out of body• Body does NOT distinguish one ...
“Skin”• Physical barrier• Chemical barrier-secretes oil andsweat (lowers pHskin), tears (containenzyme calledlysozyme), an...
“Mucous Membranes”• Skin contains naturalopenings (nose, mouth,trachea, esophagus)• These areas are lined bymucous membran...
“Small ScaleInfections”• The first line of defense has been broken… second line of defenseis triggered to attack any invad...
• 1) Alarm Signals• 2) Swelling• 3) WBC’s Attack• 4) Redness• 5) Increase in temperatureSteps to the Inflammatory Response:
• 1) Alarm Signals• 2) Swelling• 3) WBC’s Attack• 4) Redness• 5) Increase in temperatureSteps to the Inflammatory Response:
Inflammatory response nonspecific
Inflammatory response nonspecific
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Inflammatory response nonspecific

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Inflammatory response nonspecific

  1. 1. What is a system?• A group of tissues (organs) work togetherto do a task.• Ex) digestive system, circulatory system,immune system…• Function of the immune system is toprotect body from invasion by pathogens.
  2. 2. Overview of Body’sDefensesNon-Specific Defenses Specific DefensesFirst Line of Defense Second Line ofDefenseImmune ResponseSkin and Mucous InflammatoryResponseNon-SpecificWBC (phagocytes)Specific (diverse)Antigens/AntibodiesLots WBCMemory
  3. 3. Non-Specific Defense• Similar to “walls of a fort” protect by keepingpathogens out of body• Body does NOT distinguish one pathogen fromanother• Your body has several non-specific defenses…1) External- skin and mucous membranes(1stline defense)2) Internal- Inflammatory response(2ndline defense)
  4. 4. “Skin”• Physical barrier• Chemical barrier-secretes oil andsweat (lowers pHskin), tears (containenzyme calledlysozyme), and saliva• Sheds constantly(1 million cells perhour)
  5. 5. “Mucous Membranes”• Skin contains naturalopenings (nose, mouth,trachea, esophagus)• These areas are lined bymucous membranes• Secrete mucus trapsforeign objects• Areas lined with cilia• Any pathogens make itpast, may be killed bystomach acids.
  6. 6. “Small ScaleInfections”• The first line of defense has been broken… second line of defenseis triggered to attack any invaders present• Inflammatory response• Body’s attempt to destroy pathogens that enter the body whenthe skin is injured• Triggers series of reactions …1.) Chemical called histamine is released from white bloodcells called basophils2) Blood vessels in area of injury swell3) Tissue at injury site swells4) Temperature in area of injury rises = redness5) White blood cells called phagocytes move from the vesselsinto the injured tissue eat pathogen and damaged skin cells6) Platelets clot blood and seal infected area
  7. 7. • 1) Alarm Signals• 2) Swelling• 3) WBC’s Attack• 4) Redness• 5) Increase in temperatureSteps to the Inflammatory Response:
  8. 8. • 1) Alarm Signals• 2) Swelling• 3) WBC’s Attack• 4) Redness• 5) Increase in temperatureSteps to the Inflammatory Response:

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