Biology ecology


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Biology ecology

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  • Picture we can add here???
  • Think we need more explanation why here than just 2 nd law! Expose the right side of the picture to help explain??
  • Don’t forget I have the Presentation Pro for diagrams now. I just copied it and looked at it briefly so I am not sure if all diagrams are there or not!
  • How much detail are we expecting in each of these cycles?
  • What never freezes – gopher, predator, prairie???
  • Also not in the book, but I think it’s valuable Agreed. Will we ever do k and r?
  • Remove second part? Probably.
  • “ Preferences”????? Is there a better term?
  • Should we have them do this section on their own with the worksheets from last year?
  • Biology ecology

    1. 1. Ecology 1: Ecosystems
    2. 2. Levels of Organization Cellular Organization cells organelles molecules atoms The cell is the basic unit of life.
    3. 3. Levels of Organization Organismal Level organism organ systems organs tissues (lowest level)
    4. 4. Levels of Organization Population Level ecosystem Community Population (Lowest level) Biome Organism Individual Biosphere
    5. 5. Levels of Organization (from lowest to highest level) <ul><li>Organism= Living thing, individual </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. an elephant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of individuals in the same species, living and interacting in one area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. a herd of elephants in the Serengeti </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple populations interacting in one area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. grazing antelope, elephants and giraffes in the Serengeti </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All populations in one area interacting with each other and their non-living environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. the Serengeti (all organisms plus climate, nutrients, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All areas of the earth from the ocean depths to the atmosphere that support life. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Each level of organization builds on the level below it but often demonstrates new features. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Ecological roles <ul><li>Auto trophs - Producer </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>makes own food (through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis) example: plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hetero trophs - Consumer </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>must eat other organisms for food; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>primary (mouse), secondary (fox), tertiary (bobcat) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivore (eats plants) Carnivore (eats meat) Omnivore (eats both) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detritivore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms that feed on animals remains and dead material (crabs, earthworms) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An organism (ex. fungi or bacteria) that completes the final breakdown of materials in an ecosystem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End of 3.1 </li></ul></ul></ul>self other
    9. 9. How does energy enter the ecosystem? <ul><ul><li>Energy hits the earth in the form of sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophs convert sunlight (or chemical) energy into organic molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 1% of the sun’s energy is converted into organic material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually all energy is lost back to the atmosphere as heat. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. How does energy move through an ecosystem? <ul><li>Energy trapped in autotrophs ( producers ) then gets transferred to heterotrophs ( consumers ) as one organism eats another </li></ul><ul><li>The easiest way to show this is by using a food chain, food web, or food pyramid. </li></ul><ul><li>Food chain – series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten. </li></ul>
    11. 11. How does energy move through an ecosystem? Autotrophs Herbivores carnivores omnivores HETEROTROPHS
    12. 12. Food Web Food Web : links all ecosystems in a food chain together
    13. 13. Food Web in a Salt marsh This illustration of a food web shows some of the feeding relationships in a salt marsh. What does the marsh hawk feed on?
    14. 15. <ul><li>Organisms Role in food chain </li></ul><ul><li>Human _______________ </li></ul><ul><li>Deer _______________ </li></ul><ul><li>Pine tree _______________ </li></ul><ul><li>Bear _______________ </li></ul><ul><li>Rabbit _______________ </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria _______________ </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Snake ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Fly maggot ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Bluegrass ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Hawk ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Millipede ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Sparrow ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Cat ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Frog ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Algae ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Trout _________________ </li></ul><ul><li>ANSWERS: Organisms . . . . . Role in food chain </li></ul><ul><li>Human . . . . . CONSUMER </li></ul><ul><li>Deer . . . . . CONSUMER Pine tree . . . . . PRODUCER Bear . . . . . CONSUMER Rabbit . . . . . CONSUMER Bacteria . . . . . DECOMPOSER Mouse . . . . . CONSUMER Snake . . . . . CONSUMER Wheat . . . . . PRODUCER Fly maggot . . . . . DECOMPOSER Bluegrass . . . . . PRODUCER Hawk . . . . . CONSUMER Millipede . . . . . CONSUMER Sparrow . . . . . CONSUMER Cat . . . . . CONSUMER Frog . . . . . CONSUMER Algae . . . . . PRODUCER Trout . . . . . CONSUMER </li></ul>Look at the following list of organisms and identify them as either producers , consumers , or decomposer
    15. 16. Thinking Visually Solar energy Herbivore 2 1 3 Nutrients Use the following words to fill in the flowchart Decomposer Autotroph or producer Consumer or carnivore
    16. 17. Food Web <ul><li>1. For the food web, label each organism: (Some may have more than one label) </li></ul><ul><li>P = producer </li></ul><ul><li>1 = Primary Consumer 2= Secondary Consumer 3 = Tertiary Consumer </li></ul><ul><li>2. Now label each animal as either a : </li></ul><ul><li>H = herbivore </li></ul><ul><li>C = carnivore </li></ul><ul><li>O = omnivore </li></ul>
    17. 18. Food Pyramids <ul><li>A food pyramid is designed to show the organisms in an ecosystem, grouped by their feeding position or trophic level (1 st =prod, 2 nd =herbivores, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Both food chains and food pyramids show that only 10% of the energy at one trophic level makes it to the next trophic level (from the 2 nd law of thermodynamics). </li></ul>
    18. 19. Energy Flow <ul><li>The figure shows energy flow in a simple food chain. </li></ul><ul><li>At each level of the food chain, about 90% of the energy is lost in the form of heat. </li></ul><ul><li>The total energy passed from one level to the next is only about one-tenth(10%) of the energy received from the previous organism. Therefore, as you move up the food chain, there is less energy available. Animals located at the top of the food chain need a lot more food to meet their energy needs. </li></ul>
    19. 20. Critical thinking <ul><li>Draw an energy pyramid for a five-step food chain. If 100 percent of the energy is available at the first trophic level, what is the percentage of the total energy is available at the highest trophic level </li></ul>100% 10% 1% 0.1% 0.01%
    20. 21. Critical thinking <ul><li>Draw an energy pyramid for a five-step food chain. If 1,000 percent of the energy is available at the first trophic level, what is the percentage of the total energy is available at the highest trophic level </li></ul>1,000% 100% 10% 1% 0.1% Date: December 2, 2010
    21. 22. Critical thinking Write and show your work <ul><li>Draw an energy pyramid for a four-step food chain. If 1,040 percent of the energy is available at the producer level, what is the percentage of the total energy is available at the highest trophic level. </li></ul>Date: December 6, 2010 1,040% 104% 10.4% 1.04%
    22. 23. YOUR TURN <ul><li>Draw and color a food chains with all the organisms viewed. Be creative. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to include arrows to show the direction of energy flow. </li></ul><ul><li>Label each member of the food chain as the producer; or first, second, or third level consumer. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget to add the sun to your picture </li></ul><ul><li>Color producers Green </li></ul><ul><li>Color Herbivores Yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Color carnivores Red </li></ul><ul><li>Color omnivores blue </li></ul>
    23. 26. Primary Productivity <ul><li>Therefore, the ecosystems with the most productive producers have the most levels (ex. rain forest) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In most cases, there are only 3-4 levels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of 3.2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The rate at which new organic material is created in an ecosystem by producers is called the Primary Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>The more energy entering the food chain (from producers), the more that can pass up through the levels (only 10% moves up at each level), and as result, the more levels there can be. </li></ul>
    24. 27. How do nutrients cycle ? <ul><li>Energy follows a ONE-WAY path </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun  living organisms  heat  atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Matter CYCLES through living organisms endlessly </li></ul><ul><li>Biogeochemical cycles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water (hydrologic cycle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon and Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul>
    25. 28. Water Cycle Rain, snow, sleet
    26. 29. CO 2 in Atmosphere CO 2 in Ocean Figure 3-13 The Carbon Cycle
    27. 30. Carbon and Oxygen Cycle
    28. 31. N 2 in Atmosphere NH 3 NO 3 - and NO 2 - Figure 3-14 The Nitrogen Cycle
    29. 32. Nitrogen Cycle
    30. 33. B. Condensation Seepage Runoff C. Precipitation Root Uptake The Water Cycle Transpiration A. Evaporation
    31. 34. 1. Identify the stage of the water cycle that is being depicted above. Then, briefly describe the events that occur during that stage. A._____________________________________________________ B._____________________________________________________ C._____________________________________________________ 2. Which label represents runoff? 2. Which label represents ground water? 3. What is ground water? The Water Cycle
    32. 35. Questions and Answer <ul><li>1.What are the three major steps make up the water cycle? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What are the forms of precipitation may occur? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What parts of the water cycle involve absorption of energy from the sun? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Which part of the water releases heat back to the surrounding? </li></ul><ul><li>5. How do condensation and precipitation differ? </li></ul><ul><li>6. How evaporation and transpiration differ? </li></ul><ul><li>7. What happens to water that is not removed from land by evaporation? </li></ul><ul><li>8. Which process in living things uses carbon dioxide? </li></ul><ul><li>9. What is nitrogen fixation? Why is it necessary? </li></ul>
    33. 36. Niches <ul><li>Niches vs Habitats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A habitat is the location where a species lives . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. tall grassland/prairie </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A niche includes all of the species’ requirements plus its role in the ecosystem. It is determined by all the the abiotic and biotic factors relevant to the species. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Top predator in prairie areas where gophers live, and the temperature is never below freezing. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 37. Niche differences <ul><li>Organisms can be identified as either </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms with a broad niche </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eat lots of types of food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live in many types of environments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. house mice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms with a narrow niche </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eat a narrow range of food items </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live in few, specific types of habitats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. panda bear </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 38. Mutualism <ul><li>Mutualism occurs when both species benefit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhinos and oxpeckers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trees and mycorrhizae, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ants and acacia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Termites and protist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollination (Yucca and yucca moth) </li></ul></ul>
    36. 39. Parasitism <ul><ul><li>one organism feeds on/lives on another species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>typically host is bigger than parasite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parasites usually do not kill host (weaken them) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parasites need host for food, shelter, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ex. fleas on dog, tapeworm in human, mistletoe, lamprey </li></ul></ul>
    37. 40. Commensalism <ul><li>Commensalism occurs when one species benefits, and the other neither benefits, or is harmed </li></ul><ul><li>examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clownfish and anemones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>epiphytes and trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle egrets and ungulates </li></ul></ul>
    38. 41. Predation <ul><li>Predation - one organism feeds upon the other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>predator usually bigger than prey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ex. lion eating zebra </li></ul></ul>
    39. 42. Prey Strategies
    40. 43. Competition <ul><li>When two species use the same resources, they are said to compete and their interaction = competition . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex. lions and hyenas compete for food in Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Competition does not necessarily involve contact; interaction may be only by means of effects on the resources. </li></ul><ul><li>No two organisms can occupy exactly the same niche at the same time </li></ul>
    41. 44. What determines where species can live? <ul><li>All species have requirements for many factors/conditions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abiotic factors – non-living factors; ex. temperature, precipitation, pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic factors – other species; ex. prey species, competing species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For each of these factors, species exhibit a range of tolerance . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, a fish species may only be found within a pH range of 4.5 to 6 in lakes. </li></ul></ul>
    42. 45. Biomes <ul><li>A major terrestrial community that is found in different areas with similar climate is called a biome . </li></ul><ul><li>Biomes are geographical areas filled with major communities, plants and animals. </li></ul><ul><li>They are also known as major life zones . </li></ul><ul><li>Each biome is characterized by a particular type of climate, vegetation and animals. biomes often have different types of animals and plants, or fauna and flora, which have adapted to the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Biomes can be classified as </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial (land) Biomes which are often classified by their dominant plant life. </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic biomes are biomes found in water and are usually named by their physical features. </li></ul><ul><li>A biome’s structure and appearance are similar throughout its distribution. </li></ul>
    43. 46. The major Biomes <ul><li>tropical rain forest </li></ul><ul><li>tropical dry forest </li></ul><ul><li>temperate woodland and shrubland ( Chaparral), </li></ul><ul><li>temperate deciduous forest, </li></ul><ul><li>boreal/coniferous forest (taiga), </li></ul><ul><li>desert </li></ul><ul><li>temperate grassland </li></ul><ul><li>tropical grassland (savanna) </li></ul><ul><li>Tundra. </li></ul> (drag)
    44. 47. Biome distribution
    45. 48. Compare/Contrast Table Ten Major Biomes Use the book to fill in the table Biome Precipitation Temperature Soil Diversity Trees Grasses Tropical Rain Forest Tropical Dry Forest Tropical Savanna Desert Temperate Grassland Temperate woodland and Shrubland Temperate Forest Northwestern Coniferous Forest Boreal Forest Tundra
    46. 49. Compare/Contrast Table Ten Major Biomes Biome Precipitation Temperature Soil Diversity Trees Grasses Tropical Rain Forest high hot poor high dense sparse Tropical Dry Forest variable mild rich moderate medium medium Tropical Savanna variable mild clay moderate sparse dense Desert low variable poor moderate sparse sparse Temperate Grassland moderate summer hot rich moderate absent dense Temperate woodland and Shrubland summer low, winter moderate summer hot poor low medium medium Temperate Forest moderate summer moderate, winter cold rich high dense sparse Northwestern Coniferous Forest high summer mild, winter cold rocky, acidic low dense sparse Boreal Forest moderate summer mild, winter cool poor, acidic moderate dense sparse Tundra low summer mild, winter cold poor low absent medium
    47. 50. Quiz: Questions and answer <ul><li>1. Geographical filled with a major community of plants and animals are known as what? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What type of tree must lose their leaves in autumn so to prevent water lose during the frozen winters? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Name the biome that has nutrients rich soil and is most often use for agriculture. It is often identified as the “Breadbasket of the world? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What type of trees are able to keep their leaves all year and survive cold, snowy winters? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Why are there no trees in tundra? </li></ul><ul><li>6. Where does less than 1/100 of 1/10 of the Earth’s freshwater exist? </li></ul><ul><li>7.Name two of the five types of oceans biomes presented in this program? </li></ul>Biome Deciduous grassland conifers precipitation is snow too cold River, stream, pond and lake Coastal waters, Near shore zone, coral reefs, open ocean, vent communities
    48. 51. Quiz <ul><li>True/false </li></ul><ul><li>8. In some parts of the world the chaparral is the best represented by evergreen shrubs that are able to survive the destructive forces of floods </li></ul><ul><li>9. Reptiles, mammals, and huge variety of insects compete fiercely in the rain for nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>10. To survive the hot time period in the desert, some animals borrow in the cold ground </li></ul>F T T
    49. 52. Freshwater Habitats <ul><li>These habitats are distinct from both marine and terrestrial habitats and are very limited in area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make up about 2% of earth’s surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be divided into </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flowing water (rivers) standing water (ponds and lakes) and wetlands (seasonal coverage) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 53. Homework (due next class) <ul><li>Homework (due next class): create a poster board of a biome. The poster board should display (but is not limited to) the following characteristics of the biome: Name of Biome, Location, Temperatures, Precipitation, Vegetation, Animals , Drawing etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Or create a biome mobile. </li></ul>Hanger cover with construction paper Information in the biomes es
    51. 54. Freshwater Habitats <ul><li>Estuaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are very important for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breeding grounds for fish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filtering water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very productive ecosystems! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disappearing fast (flat land near the ocean) </li></ul></ul>
    52. 55. Ocean <ul><li>75% of earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Continental shelf - shallow ocean waters - smallest area; large number of species (kelp forests) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intertidal zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Along our coast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Species can tolerate being in and out of water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sea stars, algae, sea anemones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coral Reefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “rain forests” of the ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High diversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In tropical waters </li></ul></ul></ul>
    53. 56. Ocean <ul><li>open sea surface - contains plankton (free-floating microscopic organisms), bacteria, algae, fish larvae; responsible for 40% of world’s photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Benthic zone - deep sea waters - below 1000’ feet animals adapted to dark; some blind/bioluminescent </li></ul>
    54. 57. What happens when ecosystems are disturbed? <ul><li>When a disturbance impacts an ecosystem, it recovers through a process known as succession. </li></ul><ul><li>Succession on newly formed habitat is called primary succession . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No remaining organisms or soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples, lava flow, sand dune, glacier retreat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can take 1000+ years from sand dune to forest. </li></ul></ul>
    55. 58. Resources <ul><li> (energy flow) </li></ul><ul><li> (food chain) </li></ul><ul><li> (lab stimulation) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> (Biomes) </li></ul><ul><li> (activities) </li></ul>