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Basic Plant Characteristics1) Multicellular2) Eukaryotic3) Cell walls contain cellulose4) Autotrophic make food by photosynthesis using chlorophyll
What Plants Need to Survive…• Sunlight• Water• Vitamins/Minerals• Gas Exchange (O2 and CO2)• A method of transport to move water and other materials to all parts of plant.
Evolutionary Trends and Plants…• Ancestors of 1st plants were multicellular green algae• Plants have evolved specific adaptations to help them survive in a variety of different climates.• There are 4 major groups of plants which are separated by three distinct features: 1) vascular tissue 2) Seeds 3) flowers
Plant Review • Four main groups of plants 1. Bryophytes (Moss) NO SEEDS 2. Seedless vascular plants (Ferns) 3. Gymnosperms (Cone bearingSEED plants)PLANTS • Form seeds in “cones.” 1. Angiosperms (Flowering plants) • Form seeds inside of “flowers.”
Bryophytes•Non-vascular plants•Obtain/transfer water by osmosis•No true roots, leaves, stems•“Rhizoids”– anchor plant to ground•Low-growing (only few inches high)•Grow moist, shaded areas•Rely on water for reproducing(spores)•Ex) Mosses, liverworts, hornworts
Structure: Seedless Vascular Plants• 2 Types of vascular tissue: -xylem – moves water from roots to all parts of plants -phloem – distributes nutrients and carbohydrates (food) within plant• Have roots, leaves, and stems -roots – absorb water/nutrients -stems – support plant and connect leaves and roots -leaves – site photosynthesis• Ferns have strong roots called “rhizomes” and very large leaves called “fronds.”
Seed Plants•Seed plants do not require water forreproduction.•Seed plants can live in mostenvironments.•Seed plants produce “pollen” which isthe male reproductive structure.•Pollen is extremely small and light andis easily carried by wind or smallanimals.
Gymnosperms •Reproduce with seeds instead of spores •Do not require water for reproduction •Seeds are “exposed” = naked seeds •Seed produced inside cone-like structure •Ex) “Conifers/Evergreens”–fir, spruce, ginko
Angiosperms• Most common of all land plants.• Seeds develop inside ovary within a “flower”• Flowers attract animals to support pollination.• After “fertilization” seed within flower develops into “fruit.”• Angiosperms = “enclosed seed”• 2 groups angiosperms: 1) Monocots 2) Dicots
Life Spans Angiosperms• Annuals- survive one season• Biennials- take 2 years to complete life cycle• Perennials- live many years
Seeds• Seeds are embryos encased in a protective coating and surrounded by a food supply.