Phys 02 12 Nucleic Acid

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Phys 02 12 Nucleic Acid

  1. 1. Objec&ve
2.12:
Nucleic
Acids
 •  Iden&fy
the
monomers
 and
polymers.
 •  Compare
and
contrast
 general
molecular
 structure.
 •  Provide
specific
examples.
 •  Discuss
physiological
and
 structural
roles
in
the
 human
body.

  2. 2. 4.
Nucleic
Acids:
DNA,
RNA,
ATP
 •  Nucleic
acids
are
HUGE
organic
molecules
that
contain
 carbon,
hydrogen,
oxygen,
nitrogen,
and
phosphorus.
 1.  Deoxyribonucleic
acid
(DNA)

 –  forms
the
gene&c
code
inside
each
cell
 –  Blueprints
for
building
proteins,
found
in
nucleus
of
cell
 2.  Ribonucleic
acid
(RNA)

 –  relays
instruc&ons
from
the
genes
in
the
cell’s
nucleus
to
 guide
each
cell’s
assembly
of
amino
acids
into
proteins
by
 the
ribosomes.
 3.  Adenosine
Triphosphate
(ATP)
 –  Immediate
energy
storage,
short
term,
instantly
usable

  3. 3. Central
Dogma
of
Molecular
Biology
 •  DNA
contains
the
complete
gene&c
informa&on
that
 defines
the
structure
and
func&on
of
an
organism.

 •  Proteins
are
formed
using
the
gene&c
code
of
the
DNA.

 •  Transcrip&on
:
a
DNA
segment
that
cons&tutes
a
gene
is
 read
and
transcribed
into
a
single
stranded
sequence
of
 RNA.
The
RNA
moves
from
the
nucleus
into
the
cytoplasm.
 •  Transla&on
:
the
RNA
sequence
is
translated
into
a
 sequence
of
amino
acids
as
the
protein
is
formed.
During
 transla&on,
the
ribosome
reads
three
bases
(a
codon)
at
a
 &me
from
the
RNA
and
translates
them
into
one
amino
acid
 •  See
this
topic
again
in
CH
3

  4. 4. DNA
&
RNA
Structure
 •  A
molecule
of
DNA
or
RNA
is
a
 chain
of
nucleo&des.
 •  A
nucleo&de
includes:
 –  nitrogenous
base
(A‐G‐T‐C)
 –  pentose
sugar
 –  phosphate
group

  5. 5. Nitrogenous
 Bases
 •  DNA:

 •  RNA:
 –  adenine

 –  adenine
 –  thymine

 –  uracil
 
(NOT
the
vitamin
thiamin)
 –  cytosine
 –  cytosine
 –  guanine
 –  guanine

  6. 6. DNA
Structure
 •  DNA
sequence
is
a
long
strand
of
nucleo&des
 that
are
covalently
bound
between
two
sugar
 molecules
 •  Double
helix
–
two
strands
that
form
via
 hydrogen
bonds
between
base
pairs
 •  Base
pairs: 
adenine
pairs
with
thymine
 

 
 
cytosine
pairs
with
guanine

  7. 7. Anti-parallel Complementary
  8. 8. RNA
Structure
 •  Differs
from
DNA 

 –  single
stranded
 –  ribose
sugar
not
deoxyribose
sugar
 –  uracil
nitrogenous
base
replaces
thymine
 •  Types
of
RNA
within
the
cell,
each
with
a
 specific
func&on
 –  messenger
RNA:
template
for
protein
 –  ribosomal
RNA:
cataly&c
 –  transfer
RNA:
ferry
amino
acids

  9. 9. Adenosine
Triphosphate
(ATP)
 •  Temporary
molecular
storage
of
energy
as
it
is
being
 transferred
from
exergonic
catabolic
reac&ons
to
 cellular
ac&vi&es
 –  muscle
contrac&on,
transport
of
substances
across
cell
 membranes,
movement
of
structures
within
cells
and
 movement
of
organelles
 •  Consists
of
3
phosphate
 groups
aZached
to
 adenine
&
5‐carbon
 sugar
(ribose)



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