Note the characteristic “wheel”
shape of rotavirus particles from
which its name is derived.
• Rotavirus belongs to the family reoviridae. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol4no4/
• Caused viral gastroenteri6s:
– Results in low‐grade fever, severe diarrhea, and vomi6ng.
• Treatment typically involves oral rehydra6on therapy un6l the virus
runs its course.
• Rotavirus is an RNA virus; the virus par6cle contains a double‐
shelled outer capsid.
• Cool Info:
– Gastroenteri6s caused by rotavirus is more common and more severe in
children than adults, with infec6on facilita6ng future immunity.
– An es6mated 3 million cases annually in the United States, but less than
100 deaths; the rate of death is more signiﬁcant in less developed
West Nile Virus
• virus family Flaviviridae
• Single‐stranded RNA, polyhedral protein capsid, enveloped
• West Nile virus is transmiLed by mosquitoes.
• Many people are asymptoma6c, some only experience minor
ones such as a skin rash and headache; most people recover
• some people who become infected with West Nile virus
develop a life‐threatening illness that includes inﬂamma6on
of the brain
– No drugs available
– Suppor6ve treatment, an6‐inﬂamma6on & ﬂuids
• In kingdom Animalia
• Responsible for the disease Ascariasis. Causes
poten6ally severe gastrointes6nal complaints.
• infec6ons in humans occur when an ingested
infec6ve egg releases a larval worm that penetrates
the wall of the duodenum and enters the
• largest of the intes6nal nematodes aﬀec6ng humans,
measuring 15‐35 cm in length in adulthood.
• ¼ of the en6re world popula6on is infested…over 1