• Fungi kingdom
• Causes histoplasmosis, or http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/details.asp
• Resides in soil
• An infection transmitted by airborne spores
• Most people are asymptomatic
• Acute phase, non-specific respiratory symptoms
• If untreated, chronic phase may include prolonged
cough, fever, pericarditis, meningitis
• Antifungal medications are used to treat severe
• 250,000 cases in US annually
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lymphocyte
• Gram (‐) http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/defect/images/
• Shape is cocci (meaning spherical): Neisseria-gonorrhoeae.jpg
– Gonococcus; diplococci (two cocci) or streptococci (string of cocci).
• Invades space between columnar epithelial cells:
– Located in the oral‐pharyngeal area, eyes, rectum, urethra, opening of
the cervix, and external genitals of prepubertal females.
• N. gonorrhoeae is pathogenic.
• Causes gonorrhea, an STI;
– Males experience painful urinaGon and a pussy discharge; females
may experience abdominal pain and PID.
• Cool Info:
– Named by Galen A.D. 150: gon = semen + rhea = ﬂow; N. gonorrhoeae
aQaches to mucosa cells via ﬁmbriae; all infants’ eyes are treated with
anGbioGcs at birth as a preventaGve measure.
• Gram negaGve
• Only known reservoir are humans and possibly other
higher primates, speciﬁcally colonizes the cilia of
their respiratory epithelium
• Whooping Cough, characterized by fever and
coughing in ﬁrst stage, prolonged coughing ending in
a “whooping” sound.
• Slow incubaGon period (3‐6 days)