3. STRUCTURALISMHeld by Wilhelm Wundt and Titchener.All consciousness of facts andphenomena of experiences are basedupon the operation of the nervous systemparticularly the brain. Then follows anabstract analysis of the mental structuresthat are operating.
4. FUNCTIONALISMWilliam James is the mainproponent.Mental process should beregarded as functions oroperations of the organism in itsadaptation to and modification ofthe environment
5. BEHAVIORISMDefinition: School of psychology that studies onlyobservable and measurable behavior.John Watson: You cannot define conscious any more than you can define a soul. You cannot locate or measure consciousness, and therefore it cannot be the object of scientific study. Studies observable, measurable behavior and nothing more. Ivan Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Watson’s Experiment with Little Albert and the white rats (happy 11 month old conditioned to be afraid of white rats) Mary Cover Jones (1924) eliminating fears through conditioning (Peter Experiment)
6. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGYDefinition: School of Psychology that studieshow people perceive and experience objects aswhole patternsShort lived—people didn’t really see itspotential.Approaches structuralism from a differentangle. Example: When we see a tree, we see justthat, a tree, not a series of branches.Founded by Max Wertheimer
7. PSYCHOANALYSISThe basic tenets of psychoanalysis include the following:Human behavior, experience, and cognition are largely determined by irrationaldrives;Those drives are largely unconscious;Attempts to bring those drives into awareness meet psychological resistance in theform of defense mechanisms;Beside the inherited constitution of personality, ones development is determinedby events in early childhood;Conflicts between conscious view of reality and unconscious (repressed) materialcan result in mental disturbances such as neurosis, neurotic traits, anxiety,depression etc.;The liberation from the effects of the unconscious material is achieved throughbringing this material into the consciousness (via e.g. skilled guidance).Conceived by Sigmund Freud
8. THE ECLECTIC FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THEMENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT
9. REFLEXESThese are inborn automaticresponses to simplelocalized stimulationinvolving particular musclesand parts of the body.
10. DRIVES, NEEDS, WANTS, URGESThese are inborn urges and tendencies andwantsCreates tensions in the individualDetermines the actions and reactions of anindividual towards certain situation.Gives rise to ambitions which motivateindividuals to exert efforts to attain theirgoals.
11. CAPACITIES AND SPECIAL APTITUDESIncludes all those latentpotentialities that anindividual possesses whichare developed through theprocess of education.
12. TEMPERAMENT OR EMOTIONRefers to certain emotionalpredispositions of anindividual.
13. GROWTH ANDDEVELOPMENT
14. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENTGrowth – is a change in a particular phase ofthe organismDevelopment – is series of a number of relatedand continuous change in a system, extendingover a considerable time; especially enduringand sustaining particular changes in anorganism from its origin to maturity and death.Growth – increase in size and weightDevelopment – progressive changes
15. THEORIES OFDEVELOPMENT
16. FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY OF DEVELOPMENTAll human beings pass through a series ofpsychosexual stages. Each stage is dominated by thedevelopment of sensitivity in a particular erogenouszone of the body. Every stage assumes a particularconflict from the individual that must be reservedbefore going to the next higher stage. Individualswho enjoy the pleasure of a given stage, might not bewilling to move on the later stage. Individualsexperience fixation at a certain period ofdevelopment.
17. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT1. Oral stage – birth to one year Infant’s gratification for mother. Eating is themain source of satisfaction2. Anal stage – one to three years Toilet training3. Phallic stage – three to six years Pleasure from the sex organs4. Latency period – six years to adolescence Children turn their attention to people outsidetheir families
18. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT5. Genital stage – adolescence and beyond masturbation of the sex organs, sex hormonesproduction, reactivation of the genital zones (sensualpleasure), looking for future partner, prepares formarriage and adult responsibility
19. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORYEriksons stages of psychosocial development asarticulated by Erik Erikson explain eight stagesthrough which a healthily developing human shouldpass from infancy to late adulthood. In each stage theperson confronts, and hopefully masters, newchallenges.Each stage builds on the successful completion ofearlier stages. The challenges of stages notsuccessfully completed may be expected to reappearas problems in the future.
20. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORYHowever, mastery of a stage is not required to advance to thenext stage. Eriksons stage theory characterizes an individualadvancing through the eight life stages as a function ofnegotiating his or her biological forces and socioculturalforces. Each stage is characterized by a psycho social crisis ofthese two conflicting forces (as shown in the table below). Ifan individual does indeed successfully reconcile these forces(favoring the first mentioned attribute in the crisis), he or sheemerges from the stage with the corresponding virtue. Forexample, if an infant enters into the toddler stage (autonomyvs. shame & doubt) with more trust than mistrust, he or shecarries the virtue of hope into the remaining life stages.
21. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORYHowever, mastery of a stage is not required to advance to thenext stage. Eriksons stage theory characterizes an individualadvancing through the eight life stages as a function ofnegotiating his or her biological forces and socioculturalforces. Each stage is characterized by a psycho social crisis ofthese two conflicting forces (as shown in the table below). Ifan individual does indeed successfully reconcile these forces(favoring the first mentioned attribute in the crisis), he or sheemerges from the stage with the corresponding virtue. Forexample, if an infant enters into the toddler stage (autonomyvs. shame & doubt) with more trust than mistrust, he or shecarries the virtue of hope into the remaining life stages.
22. Hopes: Trust vs. Mistrust (Oral-sensory, Birth-2 years)Existential Question: Can I Trust the World?The first stage of Erik Eriksons theory centers around the infants basicneeds being met by the parents and this interaction leading to trust ormistrust. Trust as defined by Erikson is "an essential truthfulness of othersas well as a fundamental sense of ones own trustworthiness." The infantdepends on the parents, especially the mother, for sustenance and comfort.The childs relative understanding of world and society come from theparents and their interaction with the child. If the parents expose the childto warmth, regularity, and dependable affection, the infants view of theworld will be one of trust. Should the parents fail to provide a secureenvironment and to meet the childs basic needs a sense of mistrust willresult. Development of mistrust can lead to feelings of frustration,suspicion, withdrawal, and a lack of confidence. 
23. Hopes: Trust vs. Mistrust (Oral-sensory, Birth-2 years)According to Erik Erikson, the major developmental task ininfancy is to learn whether or not other people, especiallyprimary caregivers, regularly satisfy basic needs. If caregiversare consistent sources of food, comfort, and affection, aninfant learns trust- that others are dependable and reliable. Ifthey are neglectful, or perhaps even abusive, the infantinstead learns mistrust- that the world is in an undependable,unpredictable, and possibly a dangerous place. While negative,having some experience with mistrust allows the infant togain an understanding of what constitutes dangeroussituations later in life.
24. Will: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (Muscular-Anal, 2-4 years)Existential Question: Is It OK to Be Me?As the child gains control over eliminative functions and motorabilities, they begin to explore their surroundings. The parentsstill provide a strong base of security from which the child canventure out to assert their will. The parents patience andencouragement helps foster autonomy in the child. Children atthis age like to explore the world around them and they areconstantly learning about their environment. Caution must betaken at this age while children may explore things that aredangerous to their health and safety.
25. Will: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (Muscular-Anal, 2-4 years)At this age, children develop their first interests. Forexample, a child who enjoys music may like to playwith the radio. Children who enjoy the outdoors maybe interested in animals and plants. Highly restrictiveparents, however, are more likely to instill in the childa sense of doubt, and reluctance to attempt newchallenges. As they gain increased muscularcoordination and mobility, toddlers become capableof satisfying some of their own needs. They begin tofeed themselves, wash and dress themselves, and usethe bathroom.
26. Purpose: Initiative vs. Guilt(Locomotor-Genital, Preschool, 4-5 years)Existential Question: Is it OK for Me to Do, Move, and Act?Initiative adds to autonomy the quality of undertaking,planning and attacking a task for the sake of just being activeand on the move. The child is learning to master the worldaround them, learning basic skills and principles of physics.Things fall down, not up. Round things roll. They learn how tozip and tie, count and speak with ease. At this stage, the childwants to begin and complete their own actions for a purpose.Guilt is a confusing new emotion. They may feel guilty overthings that logically should not cause guilt. They may feel guiltwhen this initiative does not produce desired results.
27. Purpose: Initiative vs. Guilt(Locomotor-Genital, Preschool, 4-5 years)The development of courage and independence are what setpreschoolers, ages three to six years of age, apart from otherage groups. Young children in this category face the challengeof initiative versus guilt. As described in Bee and Boyd(2004), the child during this stage faces the complexities ofplanning and developing a sense of judgment. During thisstage, the child learns to take initiative and prepare forleadership and goal achievement roles. Activities sought outby a child in this stage may include risk-taking behaviors, suchas crossing a street alone or riding a bike without a helmet;both these examples involve self-limits.
28. Purpose: Initiative vs. Guilt(Locomotor-Genital, Preschool, 4-5 years)Within instances requiring initiative, the childmay also develop negative behaviors. Thesebehaviors are a result of the child developing asense of frustration for not being able toachieve a goal as planned and may engage inbehaviors that seem aggressive, ruthless, andoverly assertive to parents. Aggressivebehaviors, such as throwing objects, hitting, oryelling, are examples of observable behaviorsduring this stage. **
29. Purpose: Initiative vs. Guilt(Locomotor-Genital, Preschool, 4-5 years)Preschoolers are increasingly able to accomplish tasks on theirown, and can start new things. With this growingindependence comes many choices about activities to bepursued. Sometimes children take on projects they can readilyaccomplish, but at other times they undertake projects thatare beyond their capabilities or that interfere with otherpeoples plans and activities. If parents and preschool teachersencourage and support childrens efforts, while also helpingthem make realistic and appropriate choices, children developinitiative- independence in planning and undertaking activities.But if, instead, adults discourage the pursuit of independentactivities or dismiss them as silly and bothersome, childrendevelop guilt about their needs and desires.
30. Competence: Industry vs. Inferiority (Latency, 5-12 years)Existential Question: Can I Make it in the World ofPeople and Things?The aim to bring a productive situation to completiongradually supersedes the whims and wishes of play.The fundamentals of technology are developed. Tolose the hope of such "industrious" association maypull the child back to the more isolated, lessconscious familial rivalry of the Oedipal time.
31. Competence: Industry vs. Inferiority (Latency, 5-12 years)"Children at this age are becoming more aware of themselves asindividuals." They work hard at "being responsible, being good and doing itright." They are now more reasonable to share and cooperate. Allen andMarotz (2003)  also list some perceptual cognitive developmental traitsspecific for this age group. Children grasp the concepts of space and time inmore logical, practical ways. They gain a better understanding of cause andeffect, and of calendar time. At this stage, children are eager to learn andaccomplish more complex skills: reading, writing, telling time. They alsoget to form moral values, recognize cultural and individual differences andare able to manage most of their personal needs and grooming withminimal assistance. At this stage, children might express theirindependence by talking back and being disobedient and rebellious.
32. Competence: Industry vs. Inferiority (Latency, 5-12 years)Erikson viewed the elementary school years as critical for thedevelopment of self-confidence. Ideally, elementary schoolprovides many opportunities for children to achieve therecognition of teachers, parents and peers by producingthings- drawing pictures, solving addition problems, writingsentences, and so on. If children are encouraged to make anddo things and are then praised for their accomplishments, theybegin to demonstrate industry by being diligent, perseveringat tasks until completed, and putting work before pleasure. Ifchildren are instead ridiculed or punished for their efforts or ifthey find they are incapable of meeting their teachers andparents expectations, they develop feelings of inferiorityabout their capabilities.
33. Competence: Industry vs. Inferiority (Latency, 5-12 years)At this age, children start recognizing their specialtalents and continue to discover interests as theireducation improves. They may begin to choose to domore activities to pursue that interest, such as joininga sport if they know they have athletic ability, orjoining the band if they are good at music. If notallowed to discover own talents in their own time,they will develop a sense of lack of motivation, lowself esteem, and lethargy. They may become "couchpotatoes" if they are not allowed to developinterests.
34. Fidelity: Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence, 13-19 years) Existential Question: Who Am I and What Can I Be? The adolescent is newly concerned with how they appear to others. Superego identity is the accrued confidence that the outer sameness and continuity prepared in the future are matched by the sameness and continuity of ones meaning for oneself, as evidenced in the promise of a career. The ability to settle on a school or occupational identity is pleasant. In later stages of Adolescence, the child develops a sense of sexual identity. As they make the transition from childhood to adulthood, adolescents ponder the roles they will play in the adult world. Initially, they are apt to experience some role confusion—mixed ideas and feelings about the specific ways in which they will fit into society—and may experiment with a variety of behaviors and activities (e.g. tinkering with cars, baby-sitting for neighbors, affiliating with certain political or religious groups). Eventually, Erikson proposed, most adolescents achieve a sense of identity regarding who they are and where their lives are headed.
35. Fidelity: Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence, 13-19 years) Erikson is credited with coining the term "Identity Crisis." Each stage that came before and that follows has its own crisis, but even more so now, for this marks the transition from childhood to adulthood. This passage is necessary because "Throughout infancy and childhood, a person forms many identifications. But the need for identity in youth is not met by these." This turning point in human development seems to be the reconciliation between the person one has come to be and the person society expects one to become. This emerging sense of self will be established by forging past experiences with anticipations of the future. In relation to the eight life stages as a whole, the fifth stage corresponds to the crossroads: What is unique about the stage of Identity is that it is a special sort of synthesis of earlier stages and a special sort of anticipation of later ones. Youth has a certain unique quality in a persons life; it is a bridge between childhood and adulthood. Youth is a time of radical change—the great body changes accompanying puberty, the ability of the mind to search ones own intentions and the intentions of others, the suddenly sharpened awareness of the roles society has offered for later life.
36. Fidelity: Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence, 13-19 years) Adolescents "are confronted by the need to re-establish [boundaries] for themselves and to do this in the face of an often potentially hostile world." This is often challenging since commitments are being asked for before particular identity roles have formed. At this point, one is in a state of identity confusion, but society normally makes allowances for youth to "find themselves," and this state is called the moratorium: The problem of adolescence is one of role confusion—a reluctance to commit which may haunt a person into his mature years. Given the right conditions—and Erikson believes these are essentially having enough space and time, a psychosocial moratorium, when a person can freely experiment and explore—what may emerge is a firm sense of identity, an emotional and deep awareness of who he or she is.
37. Fidelity: Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence, 13-19 years) As in other stages, bio-psycho-social forces are at work. No matter how one has been raised, one’s personal ideologies are now chosen for oneself. Oftentimes, this leads to conflict with adults over religious and political orientations. Another area where teenagers are deciding for themselves is their career choice, and oftentimes parents want to have a decisive say in that role. If society is too insistent, the teenager will acquiesce to external wishes, effectively forcing him or her to ‘foreclose’ on experimentation and, therefore, true self-discovery. Once someone settles on a worldview and vocation, will he or she be able to integrate this aspect of self- definition into a diverse society? According to Erikson, when an adolescent has balanced both perspectives of “What have I got?” and “What am I going to do with it?” he or she has established their identity: Dependent on this stage is the ego quality of fidelity—the ability to sustain loyalties freely pledged in spite of the inevitable contradictions and confusions of value systems. (Italics in original)
38. Fidelity: Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence, 13-19 years) Given that the next stage (Intimacy) is often characterized by marriage, many are tempted to cap off the fifth stage at 20 years of age. However, these age ranges are actually quite fluid, especially for the achievement of identity, since it may take many years to become grounded, to identify the object of ones fidelity, to feel that one has "come of age." In the biographies Young Man Luther and Gandhis Truth, Erikson determined that their crises ended at ages 25 and 30, respectively: Erikson does note that the time of Identity crisis for persons of genius is frequently prolonged. He further notes that in our industrial society, identity formation tends to be long, because it takes us so long to gain the skills needed for adulthood’s tasks in our technological world. So… we do not have an exact time span in which to find ourselves. It doesnt happen automatically at eighteen or at twenty-one. A very approximate rule of thumb for our society would put the end somewhere in ones twenties.
39. Love: Intimacy vs. Isolation(Young adulthood, 20-24, or 20-40 years)Existential Question: Can I Love?The Intimacy vs. Isolation conflict is emphasized around the age of 30. Atthe start of this stage, identity vs. role confusion is coming to an end,though it still lingers at the foundation of the stage (Erikson, 1950). Youngadults are still eager to blend their identities with friends. They want to fitin. Erikson believes we are sometimes isolated due to intimacy. We areafraid of rejections such as being turned down or our partners breaking upwith us. We are familiar with pain, and to some of us, rejection is painful;our egos cannot bear the pain. Erikson also argues that "Intimacy has acounterpart: Distantiation: the readiness to isolate and if necessary, todestroy those forces and people whose essence seems dangerous to ourown, and whose territory seems to encroach on the extent of onesintimate relations" (1950).
40. Love: Intimacy vs. Isolation(Young adulthood, 20-24, or 20-40 years)Once people have established their identities,they are ready to make long-termcommitments to others. They become capableof forming intimate, reciprocal relationships(e.g. through close friendships or marriage)and willingly make the sacrifices andcompromises that such relationships require. Ifpeople cannot form these intimaterelationships – perhaps because of their ownneeds – a sense of isolation may result.
41. Care: Generativity vs. Stagnation(Middle adulthood, 25-64, or 40-64 years)Existential Question: Can I Make My Life Count?Generativity is the concern of guiding the nextgeneration. Socially-valued work and disciplines areexpressions of generativity. Simply having or wantingchildren does not in and of itself achieve generativity.The adult stage of generativity has broad applicationto family, relationships, work, and society.“Generativity, then is primarily the concern inestablishing and guiding the next generation...theconcept is meant to include...productivity andcreativity”
42. Care: Generativity vs. Stagnation(Middle adulthood, 25-64, or 40-64 years)During middle age the primary developmental task isone of contributing to society and helping to guidefuture generations. When a person makes acontribution during this period, perhaps by raising afamily or working toward the betterment of society, asense of generativity- a sense of productivity andaccomplishment- results. In contrast, a person who isself-centered and unable or unwilling to help societymove forward develops a feeling of stagnation- adissatisfaction with the relative lack of productivity.
43. Central tasks of middle adulthoodExpress love through more than sexual contacts.Maintain healthy life patterns.Develop a sense of unity with mate.Help growing and grown children to be responsible adults.Relinquish central role in lives of grown children.Accept childrens mates and friends.Create a comfortable home.Be proud of accomplishments of self and mate/spouse.Reverse roles with aging parents.Achieve mature, civic and social responsibility.Adjust to physical changes of middle age.Use leisure time creatively.
44. Wisdom: Ego Integrity vs. Despair (Late adulthood, 65-death)Existential Question: Is it OK to Have Been Me?As we grow older and become senior citizens we tendto slow down our productivity and explore life as aretired person. It is during this time that wecontemplate our accomplishments and are able todevelop integrity if we see ourselves as leading asuccessful life. If we see our life as unproductive, orfeel that we did not accomplish our life goals, webecome dissatisfied with life and develop despair,often leading to depression and hopelessness.
45. Wisdom: Ego Integrity vs. Despair (Late adulthood, 65-death)The final developmental task is retrospection: peoplelook back on their lives and accomplishments. Theydevelop feelings of contentment and integrity if theybelieve that they have led a happy, productive life.They may instead develop a sense of despair if theylook back on a life of disappointments andunachieved goals.This stage can occur out of the sequence when anindividual feels they are near the end of their life(such as when receiving a terminal disease diagnosis).
46. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYPiagets theory of cognitive development is a comprehensivetheory about the nature and development of humanintelligence first developed by Jean Piaget. It is primarilyknown as a developmental stage theory, but in fact, it dealswith the nature of knowledge itself and how humans comegradually to acquire, construct, and use it. Moreover, Piagetclaims the idea that cognitive development is at the centre ofhuman organism and language is contingent on cognitivedevelopment. Below, there is first a short description ofPiagets views about the nature of intelligence and then adescription of the stages through which it develops untilmaturity.
47. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYPiaget believed that reality is a dynamic system of continuous change, and as such isdefined in reference to the two conditions that define dynamic systems. Specifically,he argued that reality involves transformations and states. Transformations refer toall manners of changes that a thing or person can undergo. States refer to theconditions or the appearances in which things or persons can be found betweentransformations. For example, there might be changes in shape or form (forinstance, liquids are reshaped as they are transferred from one vessel to another,humans change in their characteristics as they grow older), in size (e.g., a series ofcoins on a table might be placed close to each other or far apart) in placement orlocation in space and time (e.g., various objects or persons might be found at oneplace at one time and at a different place at another time). Thus, Piaget argued, thatif human intelligence is to be adaptive, it must have functions to represent both thetransformational and the static aspects of reality. He proposed that operativeintelligence is responsible for the representation and manipulation of the dynamicor transformational aspects of reality and that figurative intelligence is responsiblefor the representation of the static aspects of reality.
48. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYOperative intelligence is the active aspect of intelligence. It involves all actions, overtor covert, undertaken in order to follow, recover, or anticipate the transformations ofthe objects or persons of interest. Figurative intelligence is the more or less staticaspect of intelligence, involving all means of representation used to retain in mindthe states (i.e., successive forms, shapes, or locations) that intervene betweentransformations. That is, it involves perception, imitation, mental imagery, drawing,and language. Therefore, the figurative aspects of intelligence derive their meaningfrom the operative aspects of intelligence, because states cannot exist independentlyof the transformations that interconnect them. Piaget believed that the figurative orthe representational aspects of intelligence are subservient to its operative anddynamic aspects, and therefore, that understanding essentially derives from theoperative aspect of intelligence.At any time, operative intelligence frames how the world is understood and itchanges if understanding is not successful. Piaget believed that this process ofunderstanding and change involves two basic functions: Assimilation andaccommodation.
49. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYAssimilation and accommodationThrough studying the field of education Piaget focused onaccommodation and assimilation. Assimilation, one of twoprocesses coined by Jean Piaget, describes how humansperceive and adapt to new information. It is the process oftaking one’s environment and new information and fitting itinto pre-existing cognitive schemas. Assimilation occurs whenhumans are faced with new or unfamiliar information andrefer to previously learned information in order to make senseof it. Accommodation, unlike assimilation is the process oftaking ones environment and new information, and alteringones pre-existing schemas in order to fit in the newinformation.
50. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYThrough a series of stages, Piaget explains the ways in whichcharacteristics are constructed that lead to specific types ofthinking; this chart is called Cognitive Development. To Piaget,assimilation is integrating external elements into structures of livesor environments or those we could have through experience. It isthrough assimilation that accommodation is derived.Accommodation is imperative because it is how people will continueto interpret new concepts, schemas, frameworks, etc. Assimilationis different from accommodation because of how it relates to theinner organism due to the environment. Piaget believes that thehuman brain has been programmed through evolution to bringequilibrium, and to move upwards in a process to equilibriate whatis not. The equilibrium is what Piaget believes ultimately influencesstructures because of the internal and external processes throughassimilation and accommodation.
51. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYPiagets understanding is that these two functions cannotexist without the other. To assimilate an object into an existingmental schema, one first needs to take into account oraccommodate to the particularities of this object to a certainextent; for instance, to recognize (assimilate) an apple as anapple one needs first to focus (accommodate) on the contourof this object. To do this one needs to roughly recognize thesize of the object. Development increases the balance orequilibration between these two functions. When in balancewith each other, assimilation and accommodation generatemental schemas of the operative intelligence. When onefunction dominates over the other, they generaterepresentations which belong to figurative intelligence.
52. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYThe sensorimotor stage is the first of the four stages incognitive development which "extends from birth to theacquisition of language". "In this stage, infants construct anunderstanding of the world by coordinating experiences (suchas seeing and hearing) with physical, motoric actions. Infantsgain knowledge of the world from the physical actions theyperform on it. An infant progresses from reflexive, instinctualaction at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought towardthe end of the stage. Piaget divided the sensorimotor stageinto six sub-stages":0–2 years, Infants just have senses-vision, hearing, and motor skills, such as grasping, sucking, andstepping.---from Psychology Study Guide by Bernstein, Penner,Clarke-Stewart, Roy
53. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYThe first stage is called the Sensorimotor stage (birth to aboutage 2). In this stage knowledge of the world is limited (butdeveloping) because it’s based on physicalinteractions/experiences. The child learns that he is separatefrom his environment and that aspects of his environmentcontinue to exist even though they may be outside the reachof his senses. Behaviors are limited to simple motor responsescaused by sensory stimuli. In this stage according to Piaget,the development of object permanence is one of the mostimportant accomplishments at the sensorimotor stage.(Object permanence is a child’s understanding that objectscontinue to exist even though they cannot be seen or heard).
54. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYBy the end of the sensorimotor period, objects areboth separate from the self and permanent. Objectpermanence is the understanding that objectscontinue to exist even when they cannot be seen,heard, or touched. Acquiring the sense of objectpermanence is one of the infants most importantaccomplishments, according to Piaget.
55. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYPreoperational stageThe Cognitive Development Approaches.By observing sequences of play, JeanPiaget was able to demonstrate thattowards the end of the second year, aqualitatively new kind of psychologicalfunctioning occurs.
56. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY(Pre)Operatory Thought is any procedure for mentally actingon objects. The hallmark of the preoperational stage is sparseand logically inadequate mental operations. During this stage,the child learns to use and to represent objects by images,words, and drawings.The child is able to form stable conceptsas well as mental reasoning and magical beliefs. The childhowever is still not able to perform operations; tasks that thechild can do mentally rather than physically. Thinking is stillegocentric. The child has difficulty taking the viewpoint ofothers. Two substages can be formed from preoperativethought.
57. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYThe Symbolic Function SubstageOccurs between about the ages of 2 and 7. At 2-4 years of age, kids cannotyet manipulate and transform information in logical ways, but they nowcan think in images and symbols. The child is able to formulate designs ofobjects that are not present. Other examples of mental abilities arelanguage and pretend play. Although there is an advance in progress, thereare still limitations such as egocentrism and animism. Egocentrism occurswhen a child is unable to distinguish between their own perspective andthat of another persons. Children tend to pick their own view of what theysee rather than the actual view shown to others. An example is anexperiment performed by Piaget and Barbel Inhelder. Three views of amountain are shown and the child is asked what a traveling doll would seeat the various angles; the child picks their own view compared to the actualview of the doll. Animism is the belief that inanimate objects are capable ofactions and have lifelike qualities. An example is a child believing that thesidewalk was mad and made them fall down.
58. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYThe Intuitive Thought SubstageOccurs between about the ages of 4 and 7. Children tend to become very curiousand ask many questions; begin the use of primitive reasoning. There is anemergence in the interest of reasoning and wanting to know why things are theway they are. Piaget called it the intuitive substage because children realize theyhave a vast amount of knowledge but they are unaware of how they knowit.Centration and conservation are both involved in preoperative thought.Centration is the act of focusing all attention on one characteristic compared to theothers. Centration is noticed in conservation; the awareness that altering asubstances appearance does not change its basic properties. Children at this stageare unaware of conservation.Example, In Piagets most famous task, a child ispresented with two identical beakers containing the same amount of liquid. Thechild usually notes that the beakers have the same amount of liquid.When one ofthe beakers is poured into a taller and thinner container, children who are youngerthan 7 or 8 years old typically say that the two beakers no longer contain the sameamount of liquid, and the taller container holds the larger quantity. The child simplyfocuses on the height and width of the container compared to the generalconcept.
59. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYConcrete operational stageThe concrete operational stage is thethird of four stages of cognitivedevelopment in Piagets theory. Thisstage, which follows the preoperationalstage, occurs between the ages of 7 and11 years and is characterized by theappropriate use of logic. Importantprocesses during this stage are:
60. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYSeriation—the ability to sort objects in anorder according to size, shape, or anyother characteristic. For example, if givendifferent-shaded objects they may make acolor gradient.
61. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYTransitivity- Transitivity, which refers tothe ability to recognize relationshipsamong various things in a serial order. Forexample, when told to put away his booksaccording to height, the child recognizesthat he starts with placing the tallest oneon one end of the bookshelf and theshortest one ends up at the other end.
62. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYClassification—the ability to name andidentify sets of objects according toappearance, size or other characteristic,including the idea that one set of objectscan include another.
63. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYDecentering—where the child takes intoaccount multiple aspects of a problem tosolve it. For example, the child will nolonger perceive an exceptionally wide butshort cup to contain less than a normallywide, taller cup.
64. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYConservation—understanding thatquantity, length or number of items isunrelated to the arrangement orappearance of the object or items.
65. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYElimination of Egocentrism—the ability to viewthings from anothers perspective (even if theythink incorrectly). For instance, show a child acomic in which Jane puts a doll under a box,leaves the room, and then Melissa moves thedoll to a drawer, and Jane comes back. A childin the concrete operations stage will say thatJane will still think its under the box eventhough the child knows it is in the drawer. (Seealso False-belief task)..
66. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYChildren in this stage can,however, only solve problemsthat apply to actual (concrete)objects or events, and notabstract concepts orhypothetical tasks.
67. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYThe third stage is known as Concrete operational stage (First grade to early adolescence): Intelligence isdemonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Thechild develops an ability to think abstractly and to make rational judgements about concrete or observablephenomena, which in the past he needed to manipulate physically to understand. Logic: Piaget determinedthat children in the concrete operational stage were able to incorporate inductive logic. On the other hand,children at this age have difficulty using deductive logic, which involves using a general principle to predictthe outcome of a specific event. Reversibility: An example of this is being able to reverse the order ofrelationships between mental categories. For example, a child might be able to recognize that his or herdog is a Labrador, that a Labrador is a dog, and that a dog is an animal, and draw conclusions from theinformation available, as well as apply all these processes to hypothetical situations. The abstract qualityof the adolescents thought at the formal operational level is evident in the adolescents verbal problemsolving ability. The logical quality of the adolescents thought is when children are more likely to solveproblems in a trial-and-error fashion. Adolescents begin to think more as a scientist thinks, devising plansto solve problems and systematically testing solutions. They use hypothetical-deductive reasoning, whichmeans that they develop hypotheses or best guesses, and systematically deduce, or conclude, which is thebest path to follow in solving the problem. During this stage the adolescent is able to understand suchthings as love, "shades of gray", logical proofs and values. During this stage the young person begins toentertain possibilities for the future and is fascinated with what they can be. Adolescents are changingcognitively also by the way that they think about social matters. Adolescent Egocentrism governs the waythat adolescents think about social matters and is the heightened self-consciousness in them as they arewhich is reflected in their sense of personal uniqueness and invincibility. Adolescent egocentrism can bedissected into two types of social thinking, imaginary audience that involves attention getting behavior, andpersonal fable which involves an adolescents sense of personal uniqueness and invincibility.
68. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYFormal operational stageThe final stage is known as Formal operational stage (adolescence and intoadulthood): Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use ofsymbols related to abstract concepts. At this point, the person is capable ofhypothetical and deductive reasoning. During this time, people develop theability to think about abstract concepts. Logic: Piaget believed thatdeductive logic becomes important during the formal operational stage.This type of thinking involves hypothetical situations and is often requiredin science and mathematics. Abstract thought emerges during the formaloperational stage. Children tend to think very concretely and specifically inearlier stages. Children begin to consider possible outcomes andconsequences of actions. Problem-Solving is when children use trial-and-error to solve problems. The ability to systematically solve a problem in alogical and methodical way emerges.
69. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORYThe stages and causationPiaget sees children’s conception of causation as a march from "primitive" conceptions ofcause to those of a more scientific, rigorous, and mechanical nature. These primitive conceptsare characterized as magical, with a decidedly nonnatural or nonmechanical tone. Piagetattributes this to his most basic assumption: that babies are phenomenists. That is, theirknowledge "consists of assimilating things to schemas" from their own action such that theyappear, from the child’s point of view, "to have qualities which in fact stem from theorganism." Consequently, these "subjective conceptions," so prevalent during Piaget’s firststage of development, are dashed upon discovering deeper empirical truths. Piaget gives theexample of a child believing the moon and stars follow him on a night walk; upon learningthat such is the case for his friends, he must separate his self from the object, resulting in atheory that the moon is immobile, or moves independently of other agents. The second stage,from around three to eight years of age, is characterized by a mix of this type of magical,animistic, or “nonnatural” conceptions of causation and mechanical or "naturalisitic"causation. This conjunction of natural and nonnatural causal explanations supposedly stemsfrom experience itself, though Piaget does not make much of an attempt to describe thenature of the differences in conception; in his interviews with children, he asked specificallyabout natural phenomena: what makes clouds move? What makes the stars move? Why dorivers flow? The nature of all the answers given, Piaget says, are such that these objects mustperform their actions to "fulfill their obligations towards men." He calls this "moralexplanation."
70. KOHLBERG’S STAGE OF DEVELOPMENTLawrence Kohlbergs stages of moraldevelopment constitute an adaptation ofa psychological theory originallyconceived of by the Swiss psychologistJean Piaget. Kohlberg began work on thistopic while a psychology postgraduatestudent at the University of Chicago in1958, and expanded and developed thistheory throughout his life.
71. KOHLBERG’S STAGE OF DEVELOPMENTThe theory holds that moral reasoning, the basis for ethicalbehavior, has six identifiable developmental stages, each moreadequate at responding to moral dilemmas than itspredecessor. Kohlberg followed the development of moraljudgment far beyond the ages studied earlier by Piaget, whoalso claimed that logic and morality develop throughconstructive stages. Expanding on Piagets work, Kohlbergdetermined that the process of moral development wasprincipally concerned with justice, and that it continuedthroughout the individuals lifetime, a notion that spawneddialogue on the philosophical implications of suchresearch.
72. KOHLBERG’S STAGE OF DEVELOPMENTKohlbergs six stages can be more generally groupedinto three levels of two stages each: pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Following Piagets constructivistrequirements for a stage model, as described in histheory of cognitive development, it is extremely rareto regress in stages—to lose the use of higher stageabilities. Stages cannot be skipped; eachprovides a new and necessary perspective, morecomprehensive and differentiated than itspredecessors but integrated with them.
73. KOHLBERG’S STAGE OF DEVELOPMENTLevel 1 (Pre-Conventional) 1. Obedience and punishment orientation (How can I avoid punishment?) 2. Self-interest orientation (Whats in it for me?) (Paying for a benefit)Level 2 (Conventional) 3. Interpersonal accord and conformity (Social norms) (The good boy/good girl attitude) 4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation (Law and order morality)
74. KOHLBERG’S STAGE OF DEVELOPMENTLevel 3 (Post-Conventional) 5. Social contract orientation 6. Universal ethical principles (Principled conscience) The understanding gained in each stage isretained in later stages, but may be regarded bythose in later stages as simplistic, lacking in sufficientattention to detail.
75. KOHLBERG’S STAGE OF DEVELOPMENTPre-conventionalThe pre-conventional level of moral reasoning is especiallycommon in children, although adults can also exhibit this levelof reasoning. Reasoners at this level judge the morality of anaction by its direct consequences. The pre-conventional levelconsists of the first and second stages of moral development,and is solely concerned with the self in an egocentric manner.A child with preconventional morality has not yet adopted orinternalized societys conventions regarding what is right orwrong, but instead focuses largely on external consequencesthat certain actions may bring.
76. KOHLBERG’S STAGE OF DEVELOPMENTIn Stage one (obedience and punishment driven), individualsfocus on the direct consequences of their actions onthemselves. For example, an action is perceived as morallywrong because the perpetrator is punished. "The last time Idid that I got spanked so I will not do it again." The worse thepunishment for the act is, the more "bad" the act is perceivedto be. This can give rise to an inference that even innocentvictims are guilty in proportion to their suffering. It is"egocentric", lacking recognition that others points of vieware different from ones own. There is "deference tosuperior power or prestige".
77. KOHLBERG’S STAGE OF DEVELOPMENTStage two (self-interest driven) espouses the "whats in it forme" position, in which right behavior is defined by whatever isin the individuals best interest. Stage two reasoning shows alimited interest in the needs of others, but only to a pointwhere it might further the individuals own interests. As aresult, concern for others is not based on loyalty or intrinsicrespect, but rather a "You scratch my back, and Ill scratchyours." mentality. The lack of a societal perspective in thepre-conventional level is quite different from the socialcontract (stage five), as all actions have the purpose of servingthe individuals own needs or interests. For the stage twotheorist, the worlds perspective is often seen as morallyrelative.
78. KOHLBERG’S STAGE OF DEVELOPMENTConventionalThe conventional level of moral reasoning is typical ofadolescents and adults. Those who reason in a conventionalway judge the morality of actions by comparing them tosocietys views and expectations. The conventional levelconsists of the third and fourth stages of moral development.Conventional morality is characterized by an acceptance ofsocietys conventions concerning right and wrong. At this levelan individual obeys rules and follows societys norms evenwhen there are no consequences for obedience ordisobedience. Adherence to rules and conventions issomewhat rigid, however, and a rules appropriateness orfairness is seldom questioned.
79. KOHLBERG’S STAGE OF DEVELOPMENTIn Stage three (interpersonal accord and conformity driven), the selfenters society by filling social roles. Individuals are receptive toapproval or disapproval from others as it reflects societysaccordance with the perceived role. They try to be a "good boy" or"good girl" to live up to these expectations, having learned thatthere is inherent value in doing so. Stage three reasoning may judgethe morality of an action by evaluating its consequences in terms ofa persons relationships, which now begin to include things likerespect, gratitude and the "golden rule". "I want to be liked andthought well of; apparently, not being naughty makes people likeme." Desire to maintain rules and authority exists only to furthersupport these social roles. The intentions of actors play a moresignificant role in reasoning at this stage; "they mean well ...".
80. KOHLBERG’S STAGE OF DEVELOPMENTIn Stage four (authority and social order obedience driven), it isimportant to obey laws, dictums and social conventionsbecause of their importance in maintaining a functioningsociety. Moral reasoning in stage four is thus beyond the needfor individual approval exhibited in stage three. A central idealor ideals often prescribe what is right and wrong, such as in thecase of fundamentalism. If one person violates a law, perhapseveryone would—thus there is an obligation and a duty touphold laws and rules. When someone does violate a law, it ismorally wrong; culpability is thus a significant factor in thisstage as it separates the bad domains from the good ones.Most active members of society remain at stage four, wheremorality is still predominantly dictated by an outside force.
81. KOHLBERG’S STAGE OF DEVELOPMENTPost-ConventionalThe post-conventional level, also known as the principled level, is markedby a growing realization that individuals are separate entities from society,and that the individual’s own perspective may take precedence oversociety’s view; individuals may disobey rules inconsistent with their ownprinciples. Post-conventional moralists live by their own ethicalprinciples—principles that typically include such basic human rights as life,liberty, and justice. People who exhibit post-conventional morality viewrules as useful but changeable mechanisms—ideally rules can maintain thegeneral social order and protect human rights. Rules are not absolutedictates that must be obeyed without question. Because post-conventionalindividuals elevate their own moral evaluation of a situation over socialconventions, their behavior, especially at stage six, can be confused withthat of those at the pre-conventional level.
82. KOHLBERG’S STAGE OF DEVELOPMENTSome theorists have speculated that many people may neverreach this level of abstract moral reasoning.In Stage five (social contract driven), the world is viewed asholding different opinions, rights and values. Suchperspectives should be mutually respected as unique to eachperson or community. Laws are regarded as social contractsrather than rigid edicts. Those that do not promote the generalwelfare should be changed when necessary to meet “thegreatest good for the greatest number of people”. This isachieved through majority decision, and inevitablecompromise. Democratic government is ostensibly based onstage five reasoning.
83. KOHLBERG’S STAGE OF DEVELOPMENTIn Stage six (universal ethical principles driven), moral reasoning is basedon abstract reasoning using universal ethical principles. Laws are valid onlyinsofar as they are grounded in justice, and a commitment to justice carrieswith it an obligation to disobey unjust laws. Legal rights are unnecessary, associal contracts are not essential for deontic moral action. Decisions are notreached hypothetically in a conditional way but rather categorically in anabsolute way, as in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant. This involves anindividual imagining what they would do in another’s shoes, if theybelieved what that other person imagines to be true. The resultingconsensus is the action taken. In this way action is never a means butalways an end in itself; the individual acts because it is right, and notbecause it is instrumental, expected, legal, or previously agreed upon.Although Kohlberg insisted that stage six exists, he found it difficult toidentify individuals who consistently operated at that level.
84. BIBLIOGRAPHYJmuller.wikispaces.comWikipedia.orgCalderon, Jose F., Foundations of Education, Manila, Rex Book Store, Inc. 2003