All the content, topics, learning
experiences, and organizing threads
comprising the educational plan. (Tyler in
It does not only refers to the cognitive
content but also affective and
Broad, limited, simple, general are the
words used to describe the scope.
Decision making of the teacher is needed.
Maturity of the learners
Complexity of content
Level of education
Scope of the Curriculum can be divided
Each Chunk is guided by the general curriculum
objectives or goals.
Division of the content may use deductive principle.
Arrangement of scope is inductive.
Content Outline of the Curriculum may follow some
Contents and experiences are
arranged in hierarchical manner.
A particular order in which related
events, movements, or things
follow each other.
(Smith, Stanley and Shore, 1957)
Simple to complex learning – content &
experiences are organized from simple to
complex, concrete to abstract, easy to
Prerequisite Learning- there are
fundamental things to be learned
Whole to Part Learning –
overview before the specific
content or topics. Related to
Chronological learning – the
order of events is made as a basis
of sequencing the content and
• Space – spatial relations will be the
basis for the sequence.
• Time – from the earliest to the most
• Physical Attributes – the physical
characteristics of the phenomena such
as age, shape, size, brightness &
-how ideas are related together in logical
• Class relations – group or set of things
that share common practices
• Propositional relations – a statement
that asserts something
-based on the process of
generating, discovering &
verifying knowledge, content and
experiences are sequenced
logically and methodically
- How people learn
• Empirical Prerequisites - based on
empirical studies where the
prerequisite is required before learning
the next level
• Familiarity – prior learning is important
• Difficulty – easy content is taken
ahead than the difficult one
• Interest – use interesting
contents and experiences to
boost their appetite in learning
Vertical repetition and recurring
appearances of the content provide
continuity in the curriculum. This process
enables the learner to strengthen the
permanency of learning and development of
Gerome Bruner calls this “spiral
curriculum” For learners to develop the
ideas, these have to be developed and
redeveloped in a spiral fashion in increasing
depth and breadth as the learners advance
“Everything is integrated and
interconnected. Life is a series of
emerging themes.” This is the essence
of integration in the curriculum design.
Organization is drawn from the world
themes from real life concerns.
Subject matter content or
disciplined content lines are erased
and isolation is eliminated.
Can be done either vertically or
horizontally. In vertical articulation,
contents are arranged from level to
level or grade to grade so that the
content in a lower level is connected
to the next level. Horizontal
articulation happens at the same time
like social studies in grade six is
related to science in grade six.
Equitable assignment of content,
time, experiences and other elements
to establish balance is needed in
curriculum design. Too much or too
little of these elements maybe
disastrous to the curriculum. Keeping
the curriculum “in balance” requires
continuous fine tuning and review for
its effectiveness and relevance.
Guidelines in Curriculum Design
• Curriculum design committee should
involve teachers, parents, administrators
and even students.
• School’s vision, mission, goals and
objectives should be reviewed and used as
a bases for curriculum design.
• The needs and the interests of the
learners, in particular, and the society, in
general, should be considered.
• Alternative curriculum design
should consider advantages and
disadvantages in terms of cost,
scheduling, class size, facilities
and persona; required.
• The curriculum design should take
into account cognitive, affective,
psychomotor, concepts and