Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Anth Ch12 Religion
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Anth Ch12 Religion

  • 1,481 views
Published

 

Published in Spiritual , Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,481
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
45
Comments
0
Likes
3

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Religion Monthly missive on sale At local community fair. Photo: J. Fortier
  • 2. Religion
    • What Is Religion?
    • Origins, Functions, and Expressions of Religion
    • Religion and Cultural Ecology
    • Social Con t rol
  • 3. Definitions
    • Religion is any set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices pertaining to supernatural power, whether that power be forces, gods, spirits, ghosts, or demons
    Image of Hindu demon-deity ‘Bhairav’ Photo: J. Fortier
  • 4. Definitions
    • Magic
    • Sorcery
    • Witchcraft
    Greco-Roman magic figurine; Photo: Prof. E. Pollard, SDSU
  • 5. Universality of Religion
    • Need to understand
    • Reversion to childhood feelings
    • Anxiety & uncertainty
    • Need for community
    A Hindu astrologer; Photo J.Fortier
  • 6. Animism
      • Animism is seen as basic tendency to dream of soul-others at night
      • Belief in souls that derives from the first attempt to explain dreams and like phenomena
      • Has come to be seen as a belief in soul-beings in others
    • Tylor first studied religion anthropologically and developed a taxonomy of religions
  • 7. Animism - A need to understand?
    • E. B. Tylor
      • Early humans believed in souls
      • (false) Evolutionary progression: animism>polytheism> monotheism>science
    • Nurit Bird-David
      • Relational Ontology- belief that all beings are related
  • 8. Raji woman collects Yam ‘Mother’
  • 9.
    • Buddha attained enlightenment under Ficus religiosa • Adam & Eve ate from the Fig tree
    Courtesy Woody Moise at picasaweb.google.com
  • 10. Animism of the Pleiades: “The 7 Sisters” Animation of star Formations is Common across cultures
  • 11. Types of Supernatural Forces & Beings
    • Supernatural forces
    • Supernatural beings
    Folk form of Siva, Nepal. Photo: J. Fortier
  • 12. Supernatural forces
    • Inanimate
    • Mana
    • Taboo
    • Winds
    • Weather elements,
    • Bad or good luck
    Hail storm. Photo: ccc.atmos.colostate.edu/.../ sheila_clouds2.htm
  • 13. Mana and Taboo
      • Polynesian mana and related concept of taboo related to the more hierarchical nature of Polynesian society
      • Melanesian mana defined as sacred impersonal force that is much like the Western concept of luck
    • Mana – belief in immanent supernatural domain or life-force, potentially subject to human manipulation
  • 14. Weather as Supernatural
    • Ban Raji call weather forces ‘Hawa’a”
    • Batek of Malaysia call them ‘Hala’’
    • Thunder
    • Windstorms
    • Earthquake/’Big’ weather disasters
    Ban Raji woman struck by Hawa’a
  • 15. Supernatural beings
    • Animate
    • Gods, goddesses
    • Spirits,
    • Fairies, sprites, ogres
    • Ghosts
    • Dead ancestors
    • Totems
  • 16. Totemism
      • Totems are apical ancestor of clans
      • Members of clan did not kill or eat their totem, except once a year when the members of the clan gathered for ceremonies dedicated to the totem
    • In totemic societies, each descent group has an animal, plant, or geographical feature from which they claim descent
  • 17. Religion and Cultural Ecology
    • Sacred Cattle in India
  • 18. Religion and Cultural Ecology
        • Cattle play important adaptive role in Indian ecosystem that evolved over thousands of years
        • Hindus use cattle for transportation, traction, and manure
        • Bigger cattle eat more, making them more expensive to keep
    • Sacred Cattle in India
      • Views of Western experts are ethnocentric and incorrect because:
  • 19. Religions & Social Correlations
    • Deities mimic aspects of human society
    • Child-rearing practices
    • Complexity of the society
    • Degree of societal/governmental control
    Greek Minotaur. Photo: www.historyforkids.org
  • 20. Types of Religions
    • Shamanic - shamans part-time religious intermediaries who may act as curers – these religions are characteristic of foragers but found in farming societies too
    Shaman Possessed; Photo: J. Fortier
  • 21. Kinds of Religion
      • Olympian or Polytheistic religions –appeared with states, have full-time religious specialists and have potent anthropomorphic gods who may exist as a pantheon
      • Monotheistic religions – have attributes of Olympian religions, except pantheon of gods subsumed under a single eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent being
      • Communal religions – have shamans, community rituals, multiple nature gods
  • 22. Major World Religions by Percentage of World Population 2005
      • Source: Adherents.com. 2005. http://www.adherents.com/Religions_by_adherents .html.
  • 23. Trends
    • Monotheistic religions growing
    • Found in highly stratified state societies
    • Fundamentalism growing
    Source: www.class.uh.edu
  • 24. Religion and Change
    • Religious leaders also may seek to alter or revitalize their society
    • Nativistic or Revitalization Movements
      • Social moments that occur in times of change
      • The colonial-era Iroquois reformation led by Handsome Lake is example of revitalization movement
    • Religion helps maintain social order
  • 25. Syncretisms
      • Voodoo, santeria
      • Cargo cults of Melanesia and Papua New Guinea are syncretisms of Christian doctrine with aboriginal beliefs
      • Often emerge when traditional, non-Western societies have regular contact with industrialized societies
    • Cultural mix, including religious blends, that emerge when two or more cultural traditions come into contact
  • 26. Location of Melanesian Cargo Cults • Part of Revitalization Movements
  • 27. Antimodernism and Fundamentalism
      • Tribalism, Fundamentalism, Parochialism all opposed in some ways to Globalism
    • Antimodernism – rejection of the modern in favor of what is perceived as an earlier, purer, and better way of life
  • 28. Antimodernism and Fundamentalism
      • Assert an identity separate from the larger religious group from which they arose
      • Seek to rescue religion from absorption into modern, Western culture
      • Strive to protect distinctive doctrine and way of life and of salvations
      • Many fundamentalists are politically aware citizens of nation-states
    • Fundamentalism – antimodernist movements in various religions
  • 29. A New Age Number of Americans giving no religious preference grew from 7% to 13% between 1990 and 2001
  • 30. A New Age
      • Exemption from taxation on income and property
    • Not all religions receive official recognition
      • Scientology recognized as church in U.S. but not in Germany
    In U.S. official recognition of a religion entitles it to a modicum of respect
  • 31. Secular Rituals
    • Include formal, invariant, stereotyped, earnest, repetitive behavior and rites of passage that take place in nonreligious settings
      • Many Americans seek in such apparently secular contexts as amusement parks, rock concerts, and sporting events what other people find in religious rites, beliefs, and ceremonies
  • 32. Religious Composition (in Percentages) of the Populations of the U.S., 1990 and 2001, and Canada, 1991 and 2001