The Backward designAn instructional design approachstarting with the end…… my own summary…Jaime Oyarzo
What is Understanding by Design?A framework for improvingstudent achievement,emphasizing the teachers critical roleas a designer of student learning
Understanding by Design® is based on• A primary goal of education: developmentand deepening of student understanding• Student’s understanding increase withopportunities to explain, interpret, apply, shiftperspective, empathize, and self-assess• Effective curriculum development: a three-stage design process called "backward design"
…what is not working?• Too many students learn without thinking• Instruction has become a teacher’s repeatingactivity• The course is NOT– The textbook (this is a resource)– The activities (these are the steps)– The content (this is to be mastered)• There is a big difference between just knowingand understanding
The Backward Design ProcessIdentify desiredresultsDetermineassessmentevidencePlan learningexperiences andinstructionWhat I want the students toUnderstand and know andbe able to do?How do I checkthey have learned?Which learning activitieswill lead students tothe desired results?
Takes into consideration…• Start with the end in mind• Align goals, assessment, activities• Identify key questions for every unit• Be flexible in choice of activities so long asgoals are met
Stage 1. Identify desired resultsEstablishing Curricular PrioritiesWorth beingfamiliar withImportant toknow and doBig IdeasWorthunderstandingWiggins & McTighe, p. 10
Stage 1 - Identify desired resultsWhat are the big ideas?• What questions will fosterinquiry, understanding, and transfer learning?• What are the big ideas and importantunderstandings participants should retain?• Identifying "what students will know" andmost importantly "what students will be ableto do“
Stage 1 - Identify desired resultsLearning Objective Components:• A - audience (student centered)• B - behaviour (observable & measurable)• C - conditions (how will do the task? i.e.items/infogiven, denied, format, environment, aids, time, restrictions)• D - degree (determines if success has beenreached:accuracy, speed, number, standards, permissible errors)
Stage 1 - Identify desired resultsLearning Objective provides:• a focus/intent for the instructionWhat?• students w/ guidelines & expectations forlearningHow?• a focus for assessment/evaluation(i.e. quiz, project, paper, journal)• I.D.’s info for suggestingmedia, materials, strategies(PPT, audio; visuals, hand-outs;async/sync, lab, lecture, groups, etc.)
Stage 1 - Identify desired resultsEssential questions… good questions … bad questionsAn effective story engages the reades bysetting up tensions about what willhappen nextAudience and purposeWhen water disappears, it turns intowater vapor and back as liquid if thevapor is cooledWater cover ¾ of the earth’s surfaceIn what ways does art reflect, as well asshape and culture?When did the Italian Renaissance occur?How would life be different if we couldn’tmeasure time?How many minutes are in a year?How do great writers hook and hold theirreaders?What is foreshadowing?How different is a scientific theory from aplausible belief?Describe the theory…
Stage 2 - Determine acceptableevidence• How do I check they have learned?how I measure the result?• Evidence of learning by assessment• Performance tasks and evidence ofunderstanding determine what the studentswill demonstrate and what evidence will provetheir understanding• This can include self-reflections and self-assessments on learning.
The Six Facets of UnderstandingExplainInterpretApplySelf-KnowledgeEmpathizeHavepespectiveStarting points forPerformance tasks!
Assessment typesWorth beingfamiliar withImportant toknow and doBig IdeasWorthunderstandingTraditional quizzes& tests•paper/pencil•selected-response•constructed responsePerformance tasks & projects•open-ended•complex•authenticWiggins & McTighe, p. 10
Stage 3 - Plan learning experiences&instruction• How do I teach to achieve the learningoutcomes?• How will students be “hooked”?• Lists the learning activities that will leadstudents to your desired results• How will the work be “tailored” to individualinterest and learning styles?
Stage 3 - Plan Activities, Experiences&instruction• What is the enabling…needed to perform effectivelyand achieve desired results?• What needs to be taught and coached?Determine the content• How should it best be taught?– Instructional Strategies• What activities will equip students with these neededknowledge and skills?• What materials and resources are best suited toaccomplish these desired results/goals?• Is the learning plan effective and engaging?
Backward Design ResultsIf followed completely and correctly … studentsshould be able to answer the following questions:• What are you doing?• Why are you being asked to do it?• What will it help you do?• How does it fit into what you have previouslydone?• How will you show that you have learned it?