Linked Data and the OpenART project
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  • Has been described as a ‘data commons’, or more usually a Web of Data.

Linked Data and the OpenART project Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Linked Data and the OpenART Project
    Tate, 7th October 2011
    Julie Allinson, University of York
    Richard Stephens
    Steve Baylissand
    Martin Dow, Acuity Unlimited
  • 2. “The term Linked Data refers to a set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web.”
    “the Semantic Web is the goal or end result… Linked Data provides the means to reach that goal”
    From ‘Linked Data: The Story So Far’ - Heath, Bizer and Berners-Lee 2009
  • 3. The goal of Linked Data is to enable people to share structured data on the Web as easily as they can share documents today.
    Bizer/Cyganiak/Heath Linked Data Tutorial, linkeddata.org
  • 4. Haven’t we been putting linked data on the web for years?
    • The web is full of data, yes, but structure in traditional web pages is largely ‘formatting’
    • 5. And the ‘links’ are pretty unintelligent
    • 6. Databases, search interfaces, XML etc are not really integrated into the web, just on it
    • 7. Web 2.0 services tend to work against a fixed set of sources
  • links to galleries
    links to exhibitions
  • 8. Linked data
    Linked data is about identifying the ‘real-world’ things we want to describe
    and exposing rich information about these ‘things’
    in the form of links
    linked data applications operate on top of this unbound structured web of information
    the www as one big database
  • 9. RDF
    RDF (Resource Description Framework) is a way of modelling data, conceptually (as graphs)
    it links things, not just documents
    and creates ‘typed’ links
    allows us to say meaningful things about entities
    and the relationships between them
  • 10. Triples
    Triples are the basis of RDF
    Triples statements
    Subject – Predicate - Object
    Rather than
    Displays
    Painted
    Links to
    The
    Snail
    The
    Snail
    Gallery
    Matisse
    Web
    Page
    Web
    Page
  • 11. One more thing about triples …
    If we want to do ‘linked’ data.
    Each piece of the triple should be a link.
    In web speak, that means a HTTP URI
    • A unique identifier
    • 12. MAY be de-referenced to a location (a URL)
    HTTP URIs are used to identify “real world” things
    http://dbpedia.org/resource/Snail
    http://viaf.org/viaf/42630086/#Matisse,_Henri,_1869-1954
  • 13. Linked
    The job of OpenART is to expose data
    But linking is where it gets interesting
    And where the (potential) value for linked data starts to show
  • 14. Some Examples …
  • 15. data.gov.uk
    Officially launched 21st January 2010
  • 16. Visualisation Prototype
    Using Timemap –
    Googlemaps and Simile
    http://code.google.com/p/timemap/
    Early stages with this
    Will give location and ‘extent’ of archive.
    Will link through to Archives Hub
  • 17.
  • 18. SIG.MA
  • 19. Visualising multiple data sources
  • 20.
  • 21. For discussion?
    Quality and Trust
    Licensing
    Control and Loss of Control
    Hype Curve
    Other approaches
  • 22. OpenART : Open metadata for Art Research at the Tate
    JISC funded
    part of their Infrastructure for Resource Discovery Strand
    6 months (March to July) – short!
    £30k – cheap!
    Building on the (much bigger) York’s History of Art Department and Tate’s Court Country City project funded by the AHRC.
    The Digital Library are leading OpenART and providing technical development to Court Country City
    Acuity Unlimited are working with us on OpenART.
  • 23. Doing what?
    designing and exposing linked open [meta]data for an important research dataset entitled "The London Art World 1660-1735", created as part of the AHRC funded Court, Country, City: British Art 1660 – 1735 project
  • 24. And again, doing what?
    ‘The London Art World 1660-1735’ is set of spreadsheets, the result of several years research into Sources (sale catalogues, newspaper adverts) of information about Sales, People, and Places (and the things being sold)from the period
    The Digital Library is already helping put this information on the web.
    OpenART is extending this to create ‘linked open data’.
  • 25. Snapshot from the Court Country City Web site
  • 26. OpenART - in brief
    Take the spreadsheets
    Anaylse them and model into an ontology
    Decide how to create the linked data and how to expose it to the web
    Experiment a bit
    Test and validate the ontology
    Create the data and expose
  • 27. Describing things with ontologies
    an ontology is a standardized representation of knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, and the relationships between those concepts. It can be used to reason about the entities within that domain, and may be used to describe the domain (wikipedia)
    or, put another way “a way of describing things in a way other people/machines can understand” (me)
  • 28. There are many ontologies out there
    Dublin Core is a simple ontology for describing web resources
    Geonames describes places
    For OpenART we have used two core event-based ontologies
    Dolce Ultra-lite
    Linked events (LODE)
    and have extended these for the domain
  • 29. Example!
    Much of the OpenART data set is about art sales, which are ‘events’
    Linked Events Ontology has a class for ‘Event’
    Which we have specialized to create an OpenART class for ‘Sale’
    DUL has a class for ‘Social Agent’ (or person)
    Which is a superclass for our term ‘Organiser’
  • 30. Lost yet?
    What this means is that we can describe our dataset for a very narrow domain (people researching the art market)
    But it can be generalised and understood much more widely
    Because our narrow classes are members of broader, more general classes used in standard ontologies
  • 31. Example (again)!
    Linked Events Ontology has a class for ‘Event’
    Which we have specialized to create an OpenART class for ‘Sale’
    Someone only looking for ‘art sales’ in 1670 can answer their research question
    Someone looking for ‘events’ in 1670 could infer from our ‘Sale’ class that these sales are also events
  • 32.
  • 33. OpenART output
    Unique identifiers for the primary entities (Sale, Source, Person, Place, and Artwork)
    RDF/XML (and probably ttl) documents representing each primary entity
    RDF/A embedded in the CCC web site
    Owl:sameas statements for personal names and VIAF
  • 34. Lessons learnt
    Ontology development is hard work and needs sustaining and a community
    Linked data is simple in principle, but in application needs expertise and commitment
    The original data is semi-structured and this needs clean-up to fit the precision of the ontology
  • 35. Final thoughts
    I believe there is a lot that could be done with open and linked data, by institutions
    … not least efficiencies, adding-value to local information, information sharing and resource discovery …
    Contact Julie Allinson julie.allinson@york.ac.uk
    http://tinyurl.com/dlib-openart -- http://yorkdl.wordpress.com/
    (thanks to Adrian Stevenson for some of the slides;
    cover image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bostonjal/5280851979/)