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Introduction to the Semantic Web

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Introduction to the Semantic Web

  1. 1. Tomasz Pluskiewicz PGS Software INTRODUCTION TO THE SEMANTIC WEB 2012-11-28 Introduction to the Semantic Web 1
  2. 2. Agenda  What is the Semantic Web?  What is data in the Semantic Web?  Storing and publishing semantic data  Querying the Semantic Web  What is there for developers?  How does the Semantic Web compare?  So who actually does the Semantic Web? 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 2
  3. 3. What is the Semantic Web? 2012-11-28 3 Introduction to the Semantic Web
  4. 4. What is the Semantic Web?  Semantics = meaning (from Greek)  Set of practices and standards  Synonymous or related to:  Web of data  Linked data (cloud)  Giant Global Graph (GGG)  Web 3.0  Open Data  Big Data 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 4
  5. 5. So what is it about?  Allowing machines to understand data  Ease sharing and mixing data  Extend the World Wide Web rather than replace it 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 5
  6. 6. Little bit of history  1969: paper Semantic Information Processing by Ross Quillial  1980s: CYC and WordNet  mid- to late 1990s: Tim Berners-Lee coins the term Semantic Web  Today: dbpedia: 1.2m triples 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 6
  7. 7. Semantic Web building blocks 7
  8. 8. Representation The basics of semantic data 2012-11-28 8 Introduction to the Semantic Web
  9. 9. It’s all about resources 9
  10. 10. It’s all about resources  Extensive use of URIs (and most often URLs)  (Almost) everyting is a URI  Example URIs:  http://infusion.com/people/tpluskiewicz  urn:isbn:1898432023  http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/firstName 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 10
  11. 11. It’s all findable about resources 2012-11-28  Identifier  Representation  Resource itself 11  URI (URL?)  HTML, RDF  Described object Introduction to the Semantic Web Identifier URI should be different than the representationURI Identifiers should not change
  12. 12. Cool URIs  Resource and representation have different URIs  Hash URIs  http://www.example.com/about#alice  http://www.example.com/about.html  „Normal” URIs  http://www.example.com/id/bob  http://www.example.com/people/bob.html 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 12
  13. 13. Representing the data 13
  14. 14. Resource Description Format  Facts and relations organized in triples  Triples mimic natural language sentences  Graphical representation is a directed graph My name is Tomasz Pluskiewicz. My age is 26. I work for PGS Software. 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 14
  15. 15. Resource Description Framework ex:tpluskiewicz 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 15 Tomasz Pluskiewicz 26 foaf:fullName ex:PGS- Software
  16. 16. Serializing RDF triples 2012-11-28  RDF/XML (.rdf)  Notation3 (.n3)  N-Triples (.nt)  Turtle (.ttl)  JSON-LD  TriG (.trig)  TriX (.trix)  application/rdf+xml  text/n3  text/plain  text/turtle 16 Format MIME type Introduction to the Semantic Web
  17. 17. RDF/XML vs Turtle 2012-11-28  Difficult to author  Verbose  No cannonical serialization  Simple  Concise  Has means of further compressing content 17 RDF/XML Turtle Introduction to the Semantic Web
  18. 18. There can be multiple graphs  Sets of triples form graphs  Graphs can be named with a URI  Named graph are also resources, hence there can be triples describing those graphs 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 18
  19. 19. Adding meaning The basics of semantic data 2012-11-28 19 Introduction to the Semantic Web
  20. 20. Representing the data 20
  21. 21. Basics of RDF(S) resources 2012-11-28  rdfs:Resource  rdfs:Class  rdfs:Property  rdfs:Datatype  rdfs:Literal  rdf:type  rdfs:label  rdfs:subClassOf  rdfs:subPropertyOf  rdfs:range  rdfs:domain 21 classes properties Introduction to the Semantic Web
  22. 22. Web Ontology Language  OWL: Lite, DL and Full  OWL 2: EL, QL and RL  Defining constraints  Enables defining complex rules  Uses specialized syntaxes  Base terms: owl:Thing, owl:Nothing, owl:DatatypeProperty, owl:ObjectProperty, owl:sameAs 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 22
  23. 23. Common ontologies  Friend of a Friend  Dublin Core  SIOC  SKOS  UMBEL  Suggested Upper Merged Ontology 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 23  Geonames  BIBO
  24. 24. Specialized ontologies  Gene Ontology  GOLD (General O. for Linguistic Description)  Foundational Model of Anatomy  GoodRelations  Lexvo 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 24
  25. 25. Storing and publishing 2012-11-28 26 Introduction to the Semantic Web
  26. 26. Storing in relational databases  Mapping tables to triples:  D2RQ  R2RML  Ultrawrap  Using RDBMS with RDF built-in capabilities  Oracle 11g  Virtuoso  Jena SDB  IBM DB2 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 27
  27. 27. Native triplestores  Using native triple (quad) stores  Virtuoso  AllegroGraph  BigOWLIM  Jena TDB  4store  Stardog  Dydra 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 28
  28. 28. Publishing data easily  Embedding semantic markup in HTML  Microformats  Microdata  RDFa  Directly publishing RDF documents http://manu.sporny.org/2011/uber-comparison-rdfa-md-uf/ 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 29
  29. 29. Microformats example 2012-11-28 <ul> <li> Joe Doe</li> <li> The Example Company </li> <li> 604-555-1234</li> <li> <a> Website</a> </li> </ul> 30 <ul class="vcard"> <li class="vcard"> Joe Doe</li> <li class="org"> The Example Company </li> <li class="tel"> 604-555-1234</li> <li> <a class="url"> Website</a> </li> </ul> Introduction to the Semantic Web
  30. 30. Microdata example <section itemscope itemtype="http://data-vocabulary.org/Person"> Hello, my name is <span itemprop="name">John Doe</span>, I am a <span itemprop="title">graduate research assistant</span> at the <span itemprop="affiliation">University of Dreams</span>. My friends call me <span itemprop="nickname">Johnny</span>. You can visit my homepage at <a href="http://www.JohnnyD.com" itemprop="url">www.JohnnyD.com</a>. <section itemprop="address" itemscope itemtype="http://data-vocabulary.org/Address"> I live at <span itemprop="street-address">1234 Peach Drive</span> <span itemprop="locality">Warner Robins</span> , <span itemprop="region">Georgia</span>. </section> </section> 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 31
  31. 31. RDFa example <p xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" about="http://www.example.com/books/wikinomics"> In his latest book <cite property="dc:title">Wikinomics</cite>, <span property="dc:creator">Don Tapscott</span> explains deep changes in technology, demographics and business. The book is due to be published in <span property="dc:date" content="2006-10-01">October 2006</span>. </p> 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 32
  32. 32. Querying the Semantic Web 33
  33. 33. Publishing queryable data  SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language  Remote queries through SPARQL Endpoints  SPARQL 1.1 features:  ASK, SELECT, DESCRIBE, CONSTRUCT  Aggregates  Federated queries  Extensibilty, XPath, subqueries  SPARQL Update 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 34
  34. 34. SPARQL Examples 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 35
  35. 35. SPARQL + rules = SPIN  SPARQL Inferencing  Developed by TopQuadrant  Components of SPIN:  Represent SPARQL queries as RDF triples  Allow modularizing queries with spin:Function and spin:Template  spin:MagicProperty  ASK to create constraints  CONSTRUCT to create rules 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 36
  36. 36. Constraints and rules 2012-11-28 37 Introduction to the Semantic Web
  37. 37. Functions and templates 2012-11-28 38 Introduction to the Semantic Web
  38. 38. What is there for developers?  dotNetRDF  Jena/ARQ  Rdflib  RDF.rb  EasyRdf  Rdfquery  Redland  (Web)Protégé  TopBraid Composer  NeOn  OntoWiki  Semantic MediaWiki  Cubic Web Programming tools Design tools and frameworks
  39. 39. Semantic Web vs X 2012-11-28 40 Introduction to the Semantic Web
  40. 40. Semantic Web vs XML 2012-11-28  Data representation (model)  Graph  xsd and XPath  Schema defined with RDFS or OWL  URI identifiers  Data serialization (syntax)  Tree  xsd and XPath  DTD or XML schema  No built-in identifiers 41 Semantic Web (RDF) XML Introduction to the Semantic Web
  41. 41. Semantic Web vs REST 2012-11-28  URIs identify resources  HTTP encouraged to allow dereferencing  Uniform RDF messages  Resources are linked (triples)  Application specific  Resource Identification  Uniform Interface  Self-Describing Messages  Hypermedia Driving Application State  Stateless Interactions 42 Semantic Web REST Introduction to the Semantic Web
  42. 42. Semantic Web vs RDBMS 2012-11-28  SPARQL  Felxible and extensible schema  Easy data distribution  Depends on vendor  Easier process BI  Open World  SQL  Schema must be defined first and is rather rigid  Painful replication  ACID Transactions  Strict ETL  Closed World 43 Semantic Web Relational databases Introduction to the Semantic Web
  43. 43. Semantic Web vs NoSQL 2012-11-28  SPARQL  Graph  Schemaless  Named graphs  Built on standards and interoperability  Can seem scientific and complicated  Various APIs  Graph, doc, key-value  Schemaless  Documents (doc DBs)  Tackle specific problems (latency, scale, perf.)  Designed for easy adoption 44 Semantic Web NoSQL Introduction to the Semantic Web
  44. 44. Who actually does the Semantic Web? Is it happening? 2012-11-28 46 Introduction to the Semantic Web
  45. 45. Linked data and open data  Dbpedia  Freebase  Geonames  Social data  Media  Government data  Publications  Many many other  datahub.io  lod.openlinksw.com  data.gov  data.gov.uk  datadotgc.ca  openlibrary.org  bnb.data.bl.uk 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2011-09-19_colored.html
  46. 46. Who does the Semantic Web? 2012-11-28  IBM DB2  Open Services Lifecycle Collaboration  Linked Data Platform  Oracle 11g  Triplestore  Reasoner 48 IBM Oracle Introduction to the Semantic Web
  47. 47. Who does the Semantic Web? 2012-11-28  Webmaster tools  Knowledge graph  Freebase  RDFa/Microdata (also Yahoo)  Open Graph Protocol 49 Google Facebook Introduction to the Semantic Web
  48. 48. Who does the Semantic Web? 2012-11-28 Thousands of datasets Some offered in RDF Linked by Linking Open Government Data project (200 datasets) Open Government Partnership (50+ countries)  Gene research  Language processing  Semantic MediaWiki 50 Government/public data Academic work Introduction to the Semantic Web
  49. 49. Where to learn in person?  Semantic Technology & Business Conference  Berlin, London, New York, San Francisco  European Semantic Web Symposium  International Semantic Web Conference  International World Wide Web Conference  International Conference on Semantic Web and Web Services  Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 51
  50. 50. Some interesting links...  http://semanticweb.com/  http://patterns.dataincubator.org/book/  http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/  http://spinrdf.org  Wikipedia  http://semanticweb.com/breaking-into-the-nosql-conversation_b27146  http://gigaom.com/2012/03/11/is-big-data-new-or-have-we-forgotten-its-old- heroes/  http://www.snee.com/bobdc.blog/2012/10/sparql-and-big-data-and- nosql.html  http://dret.net/netdret/docs/soa-rest-www2009/rest  http://www.mkbergman.com/  http://www.cambridgesemantics.com/semantic-university 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 52
  51. 51. ...and some books  David Wood, Linked Data, Manning  Bob DuCharme, Learning SPARQL, O’Reilly  Toby Segaran, Programming the Semantic Web, O’Reilly  John Hebeler, Semantic Web Programming, Wiley  David Siegel, Pull: The Power of the Semantic Web to Transform Your Business, Portfolio 2012-11-28Introduction to the Semantic Web 53

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