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20110324 linked openeuropeanahumanities


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20110324 linked openeuropeanahumanities

  1. 1. Linked Open Europeana: Semantics for the Digital Humanities Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin / School of Library and Information Science [email_address]
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Linked Open Data: What is it, how does it work?
  3. 3. How does it relate to the Semantic Web ?
  4. 4. Linked Open Europeana: how will it work in Europeana
  5. 5. … for the Digital Humanities: scholars using Europeana
  6. 6. Conclusion : on the importance of being 'open' </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Web of Documents Information Management: A Proposal (TBL, 1989)
  8. 8. Resources and Links in the Document Web <ul><li>We have HTTP URIs to identify resources and links between them – but we are missing a few things!
  9. 9. What kinds of resources are 'Louvre.html' and 'LaJoconde.jpg'? </li><ul><li>A machine cannot tell.
  10. 10. Humans can: we recognize implied context! </li></ul><li>How exactly do they relate to each other? </li><ul><li>A machine cannot tell.
  11. 11. Humans can: again we recognize implied context! </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Syntactically Extending the Document Web (1) <ul><li>We add a syntax for making statements on resources: RDF </li></ul><ul><li>Or, more generally triples ... </li></ul><ul><li>… where S and P are web resources (identified using URIs) and O is either a web resource or a literal </li></ul>
  13. 13. Syntactically Extending the Document Web (2) <ul><li>We add a schema language (RDFS) with elements such as </li><ul><li>classes,
  14. 14. hierarchies of classes and properties,
  15. 15. inheritance
  16. 16. support for basic inferencing. </li></ul><li>And thus are able to establish structures in triple aggregations resulting in lightweight domain ontologies: </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Web of Things … Somewhat Mistaken Taken from Ronald Carpentier's Blog at 2007/08/08/1-2-3/ What's wrong with this picture?
  18. 18. … and the Way we extend the Web in scope to make it a 'Web of Things'
  19. 19. And we get … Linked Data Copyright © 2008 W3C (MIT, ERCIM, Keio)
  20. 20. LoD … and the Semantic Web? <ul><li>“Semantic Web done right ” (TBL, ))
  21. 21. -> What was wrong about the Semantic Web in 2007? </li><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence heritage (agents, heavy logic)
  22. 22. Mostly corporate, inhouse applications
  23. 23. Little visibility on the WWW (“Where's the Web in the SW?” Frank van Harmelen, 2006)
  24. 24. Misuse of the attribute 'semantic' </li></ul><li>„ I called this graph the Semantic Web, but maybe it should have been Giant Global Graph !“ (TBL, )
  25. 25. => Linked Open Data extends the Web of documents in syntax and scope without falling back into the mistakes of Artificial Intelligence. Future extensions may well grow into a truly 'semantic' web … ( ≠Web 3.0) </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Europeana Data Model: Making Europeana Part of Linked Open Data Partially based on Martin Doerr, Stefan Gradmann, Steffen Hennicke, Antoine Isaac, Herbert Van de Sompel: The Europeana Data Model (IFLA 2010)
  27. 27. Pre-EDM This made V. Reding promise a „European Digital Library“ in 2005
  28. 28. <ul>ESE </ul><ul>“ Europeana Semantic Elements” (ESE) </ul><ul><li>Created for 2008 version of Europeana
  29. 29. enforces interoperability by converting datasets to a Dublin-Core like “flat” representation
  30. 30. “ simple and robust” but: </li><ul><li>original metadata is not visible anymore
  31. 31. no specializations to finer-grained models
  32. 32. no connections to external (open data) resources </li></ul><li>Probably shouldn't have been called “semantic” :-) </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul>EDM </ul><ul>“ Europeana Data Model” (EDM) </ul><ul><li>destined to replace ESE with the 2011 release of Europeana
  34. 34. ESE “application profile” of EDM (backwards compatibility)
  35. 35. preserves original data while still allowing for interoperability
  36. 36. allows for Semantic Web representation </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul>EDM and other standards </ul><ul><li>Simple Knowledge Organization System ( SKOS ) </li><ul><li>Models the KOSs in the Semantic Data Layer of Europeana.
  38. 38. Allows for matching between KOSs. </li></ul><li>DCMI Metadata Terms </li><ul><li>Used for a core of semantically interoperable properties for descriptive metadata about an object.
  39. 39. Ensures backwards compatibility to ESE. </li></ul><li>Open Archives Initiative Object Reuse & Exchange ( OAI ORE ) </li><ul><li>Organizes the metadata about an object in Europeana: </li><ul><li>Provided Object: Represents the described object of interest.
  40. 40. Digital Representation: Some digital view of the object.
  41. 41. Proxy: The description of the provided object from one given perspective.
  42. 42. Aggregation: Groups all information pieces together. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul>Mona Lisa: French Ministry of Culture </ul>
  44. 44. <ul>Metadata Record in EDM </ul><ul>Proxy </ul><ul>Aggregation </ul><ul>Digital Representations </ul><ul>Object of Interest </ul>
  45. 45. <ul>Different Semantic Grains </ul><ul><li>Keep data expressed as close as possible to original model.
  46. 46. Using mappings to more interoperable level: the EDM. </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul>Semantic Enrichment </ul><ul>ens:Agent : persons or organizations ens:Place : spatial entities </ul><ul>ens:TimeSpan : time periods or dates skos:Concept : entities from KOS </ul>
  48. 48. <ul>Event-Centric Modeling </ul>Preserving and exploiting original data also means being compatible with descriptions beyond simple object level
  49. 49. <ul>Complex Objects </ul><ul><li>Part-whole links for complex (hierarchical) objects
  50. 50. Order among parts of objects
  51. 51. Derivation and versioning relations </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul>Current State of EDM </ul><ul><li>Confirmed feasibility in community workshops (archives, libraries, audiovisual archives, museums).
  53. 53. An EDM RDF dump of the entire Europeana data space has been produced by Bernhard Haslhofer.
  54. 54. The EDM is part of the upcoming 'Danube' release (April/May 2011)
  55. 55. EDM Specifications and Primer: </li><ul><li> </li></ul><li>EuropeanaLabs: </li><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. <ul>… and LoD </ul>
  57. 57. An Aggregation ...
  58. 58. … some context
  59. 59. … more context
  60. 60. <ul>… and the Big Picture: The Semantic Data Layer </ul>
  61. 61. <ul>The Semantic Data Layer </ul><ul></ul><ul>library </ul><ul>archive </ul><ul>museum </ul><ul>Bridging „isles of information“ by connecting objects from different domains via cross-vocabulary links. </ul>
  62. 62. <ul>EDM and Linked Open Data </ul><ul>Europeana Information Space </ul><ul>Context Data </ul><ul><li>DBpedia
  63. 63. PND and SWD (prototype)
  64. 64. Geonames
  65. 65. LCSH
  66. 66. … </li></ul>
  67. 67. 'Beyond Catalogues and Records' generates new questions! <ul><li>Where do resource aggregations 'start'? Where do they 'end'?
  68. 68. And what constitutes document boundaries??
  69. 69. And which node was connected to which one at a given time??? </li></ul>A B C
  70. 70. … and new opportunities: Triple Sets and Reasoning (1)
  71. 71. Triple Sets and Reasoning (2)
  72. 72. Triple Sets and Reasoning (3) -> Potential of novel digital heuristics!
  73. 73. An Example (1)
  74. 74. An Example (2)
  75. 75. An Example (3)
  76. 76. An Example (4)
  77. 77. An Example (5)
  78. 78. An Example (6)
  79. 79. An Example (7) Adam & Eve ∞
  80. 80. <ul>The Datacloud Behind the Example </ul>
  81. 81. <ul>Semantic Exploration, Context Discovery and Knowledge Generation: <li>Semantics for the Digital Humanitites </li></ul>
  82. 82. What if ... <ul><li>Europeana EDM is fully implemented and data migrated.
  83. 83. Data originating from public bodies (PSI) are available as LoD </li><ul><li>As in : </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And we combine all this with the rest of the Cloud: what use to make of all this? -> Into knowledge generation! </li></ul>
  84. 84. Processing of source data in the Humanities: aggregation ...
  85. 85. ... modeling ...
  86. 86. ... and Digital Heuristics?
  87. 87. SwickyNotes: Ontology Based Annotation as Linked Open Data
  88. 88. “ Cretans are always Liars” … annotated
  89. 89. Perseus
  90. 90. “ Cretans are always Liars” … in Perseus!
  91. 91. -> Lidell-Scott … and further! <ul><li>-> Isidore
  92. 92. -> TextGrid
  93. 93. -> Europeana
  94. 94. -> Wordnet, DBPedia, Geonames …: into context!!! </li></ul>
  95. 95. Conclusion (1): It's the semantics, stupid! <ul><li>Converging agendas </li><ul><li>Approaches such as SwickyNotes/Muruca and communities built around those must be enabled to display and process Europeana resources as part of their proper functional context </li></ul><li>For this to be viable at all </li><ul><li>Europeana object representations need to be seamlessly contextualised in the Linked Open Data space
  96. 96. and an appropriate API enabling specialised reasoning as a basis for digital humanities heuristics are vitally required. </li></ul><li>It remains an open issue to what extent we need to support advanced reasoning features that may not be available on SKOS / RDFS level. </li></ul>
  97. 97. Conclusion (2): It's the semantics, stupid! <ul><li>We thus do not propose to compete Google (which would be a silly idea anyway) – but rather to provide an added value Google doesn't offer (but may of course be working on, without us knowing ...)
  98. 98. In such a perspective, a strong profile characteristic for Europeana paradoxically results from what may be perceived as a specific European weakness: the scattered, heterogeneous and multilingual nature of our cultural resources requiring semantic foundations for conceptual interoperability!
  99. 99. A semantics aware Europeana delivers what has been asked for in the “Cyberinfrastructure for the Social Sciences and Humanities” report commissioned by the ACLS: “Our Cultural Commonwealth” </li></ul>
  100. 100. Conclusions (3): It's the humanities, stupid! <ul><li>The danger is the often institutionally enforced disconnect between technician and scholar : </li><ul><li>“ Unfortunately we are still in some instances thinking that the non-technical scholar specifies the end in mind , whereupon the technician implements it . In that circumstance both lose .” (Willard McCarty, Humanist Discussion Group 22.053) </li></ul><li>In order to avoid this Europeana needs to </li><ul><li>Seamlessly integrate in the semantic layer of Linked open Data to contextualise object representations
  101. 101. provide APIs enabling specialised reasoning for machine based digital heuristics
  102. 102. work with the humanities computing community on the related functional primitives l </li></ul><li>In that circumstance both win!
  103. 103. -> Meeting with Digital Humanists and Europeana Developers in Paris 4 th of April as a starting event for a continuous process! </li></ul>
  104. 104. Selected Reading <ul><li>Martin Doerr, Stefan Gradmann, Steffen Hennicke, Antoine Isaac, Carlo Meghini, Herbert van de Sompel: The Europeana Data Model. IFLA 2010 (Gothenburg). Session on „Libraries and the Semantic Web“.
  105. 105. Stefan Gradmann: Knowledge = Information in Context: on the Importance of Semantic Contextualisation in Europeana. Europeana White Paper 1.
  106. 106. A lot more mercifully skipped ... </li></ul>
  107. 107. Questions?